Following the schism (split) between Sunni’s and Shiites, the following dynasties were formed, creating a Golden Age of Islam.
Arab tribal group who ruled the Islamic world from Damascus, Syria Allowed the Islamic faith to be spread rapidly
Allow conquered people to practice their own religion so long as they paid a poll tax, ◦ otherwise known as a non- believer tax ◦ Some Christians and Jews even held positions in government
Replaced the Umayyads in 750 AD ◦ Few Umayyads escaped their wrath, moved to Spain Moved capital to Baghdad Built a wealthy empire known for its advances Led area into the Golden Age of Muslim culture
While Europe was lost in the Dark Ages, Islam dominated and flourished in all aspects of society.
Development of calligraphy- ◦ Beautiful writing and patterns to decorate buildings and art
Used byzantine knowledge to design domes and arches Painted people and animals in non-religious art
Astronomy ◦ Accurately recalculated the circumference of the earth ◦ Studied eclipses
Medicine ◦ Required doctors to pass difficult tests ◦ Set up hospitals with emergency rooms Studied diseases and wrote medical books
Established an international trading network, connecting the Middle East, Europe, West Africa, India, China and Southeast Asia
Considered the Quran (Koran) the most important piece of Arabic Literature Created great work philosophy, poetry, and fictional tales ◦ Ex.) Aladdin, Thousand and One Nights
Established universities and libraries in Cairo, Egypt; Baghdad, Iraq; Cordoba, Spain; and Timbuktu, West Africa House of Wisdom Scholars worked at preserving, translating, and advancing Greco- Roman, Egyptian, and Indian knowledge
Crusades (1100 AD- 1300 AD) Demonstrated the superiority of Muslim technology and the impact of Islamic culture on the Middle East in their defeat of the Christians Long term impact: renewed trade and cultural contracts with Europeans. This propelled Europe into the Renaissance.
Around 1200 AD the Abbasid Dynasty began to decline Ethnic differences ◦ Muslim groups did not get along with Arabs, Persians, or the Turks Crusades weakened rule Attacks by the Mongols ◦ Captured the city of Baghdad