Presentation on theme: "Water and Aqueous Systems Chapter 17. Objectives 1.Describe the hydrogen bonding that occurs in water 2.Explain the high surface tension and low vapor."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives 1.Describe the hydrogen bonding that occurs in water 2.Explain the high surface tension and low vapor pressure of water in terms of hydrogen bonding 3.Account for the high heat of vaporization and the high boiling point of water in terms of hydrogen bonding 4.Explain why ice floats on water
The Water Molecule O-H bonds are highly polar covalent bonds. the O atom has a slightly negative charge. H has a slightly positive charge. Hydrogen bonding- occurs when hydrogen is attracted to a very electronegative element (N, O, and F).
The Unique Properties of Water 1.High surface tension 2.Low vapor pressure 3.High specific heat capacity 4.High heat of vaporization 5.High boiling point 6.Low density of ice
Surface properties Surface tension: the inward pull that tends to minimize the surface area of a liquid. Surfactant: surface active agent- surface tension is decreased by detergents (interferes with hydrogen bonding)
Specific Heat Capacity Waters high specific heat capacity helps to moderate daily air temperatures around large bodies of water. (Waters specific heat is more than 4 times that of most metals.)
Waters high heat of vaporization Because of hydrogen bonding, water absorbs large amounts of heat as it vaporizes. Water releases large amounts of heat as it condenses.
Waters high boiling point Hydrogen bonding causes waters high boiling point
Ice Ice has an open framework structure, the density of ice is lower than that of water.
Objectives 1.Explain the significance of the statement like dissolves like 2.Distinguish between strong electrolytes, weak electrolytes, and nonelectrolytes, giving examples of each
What is a solution? Solution – homogeneous mixture –Solvent – substance present in largest amount (the dissolving medium) –Solutes – other substances in the solution –Aqueous solution – water is the solvent
Solvation… the process that occurs as a solute dissolves. There are two types of solvation: –Ionic compounds dissolve by dissociation. –Covalent compounds dissolve by molecular solvation.
Solubility of Ionic Substances: Dissociation The positive and negative ions of a salt come apart (dissociate) as a salt dissolves.
Dissociation vs. Molecular Solvation Dissociation: NaCl (s) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Note: the ions come apart from each other (electrolytes) Molecular solvation: C 6 H 12 O 6(s) C 6 H 12 O 6(aq) Note: no dissociation occurs (nonelectrolytes)
Like dissolves like Polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents (water is polar, so it dissolves polar substances, either ionic or molecular). Nonpolar solutes dissolve in nonpolar solvents (oil dissolves in kerosene).
Solubility of Polar Substances Ethanol is soluble in water because of the polar OH bond.
Why is solid sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), table sugar, soluble in water?
Substances Insoluble in Water Nonpolar oil does not interact with polar water.
Electrolytes Electrolytes- conduct an electric current in solution or in molten state. (ionic compounds) Nonelectrolytes- do not conduct an electric current in solution or in molten state. (molecular compounds)
Electrolytes Strong electrolytes: solute completely breaks apart in solution [includes soluble salts (such as KCl), inorganic acids (such as HNO 3 ), inorganic bases (such as NaOH)]
Electrolytes Weak electrolytes: only a fraction of the solute breaks apart into solution [includes poorly soluble salts (such as PbCl 2 ), organic acids (such as HC 2 H 3 O 2 ), and organic bases (such as NH 3 )]
Electrolytes Nonelectrolyte – does not conduct when in solution- does not break apart into ions. [includes most organic compounds (such as glucose)]
Water of hydration The water in a crystal is called water of hydration. A hydrate is a compound that includes water of hydration.
Water of hydration A hygroscopic substance removes water from the air. These substances are called dessicants.
Heterogeneous Aqueous Systems Suspensions are mixtures from which particles settle out upon standing. (The particles are much larger than those in a solution.) Colloids are heterogeneous mixtures that contain particles that are intermediate in size between suspensions and true solutions
Colloidal Systems Colloids exhibit the Tyndall effect, which is the scattering of light in all directions. Colloids include milk, mayonnaise, marshmallows, egg white, blood, and paint.
1.Identify factors that determine the rate at which a solute dissolves 2.Identify factors that affect the solubility of a solute in solution 3.Calculate the solubility of a gas in a liquid under various pressure conditions Objectives
Factors affecting the rate of dissolving How could you speed up the dissolving of sugar in a glass of iced tea? Which dissolves faster, table salt or rock salt?
Factors affecting the rate of dissolving Temperature – increasing the temperature speeds up the rate of dissolving Agitation – stirring speeds up the rate of dissolving Particle size – smaller particles dissolve faster than large particles (surface area)
Solubility The solubility- the amount that dissolves in a given quantity of solvent at a given temperature.
Solubility A saturated solution contains the maximum amount of solute at a constant temperature.
Solubility An unsaturated solution contains less solute than a saturated solution. A supersaturated solution contains more solute than a saturated solution. (This occurs when a solution is saturated and then allowed to cool but all of the solid remains dissolved. It is an unstable solution, adding a crystal causes precipitation.)
What would happen… …if you added more sugar to a saturated sugar solution and stirred? …if you added more sugar to an unsaturated sugar solution and stirred?
Factors affecting the solubility of a substance How could you increase the amount of sugar that would eventually dissolve in a glass of tea?
Factors affecting the solubility of a substance Only two factors affect the amount of solute that can dissolve. 1.Temperature affects solubility of both solids and gases in liquid solvents. 2.Pressure affects solubility of gases in liquid solvents.
Factors affecting the solubility of a substance The solubility of most solid substances increases as the temperature of the solvent increases. For a few substances, the reverse occurs.
The Effect of Temperature on the Solubility of Solids
The Effect of Temperature on Gas Solubility Increasing the temperature of a dissolved gas solution decreases the concentration of the gas. Have you ever tried a hot Dr. Pepper? Heat it in a pan on the stove, pour a cup, and it has no bubbles! Thermal pollution occurs when hot water is added to a lake, the dissolved oxygen levels fall in the water and it kills the fish.
The Effect of Pressure on Gas Solubility Increasing the pressure of a gas over the surface of a solvent increases the solubility of the gas in the solvent. In a bottled soda, the pressure of CO 2 over the liquid is high and when the cap is opened, the pressure is reduced and bubbles begin to come out of the solution.
The Effect of Pressure on Gas Solubility Henrys Law: at a given temperature the solubility (S) of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure (P) of the gas above the liquid. S 1 /P 1 = S 2 /P 2
Question: If the solubility of a gas in water is 0.77 g/L at 3.5 atm pressure, what is the solubility (in g/L) at 1.0 atm? (The temperature is held constant at 25 o C.) Answer: S 1 /P 1 = S 2 /P 2 0.77 g/L / 3.5 atm = S 2 / 1.0 atm S 2 = 0.22 g/L