Presentation on theme: "Solutions n Solution – a homogeneous mixture of pure substances n The SOLVENT is the medium in which the SOLUTES are dissolved. (The solvent is usually."— Presentation transcript:
Solutions n Solution – a homogeneous mixture of pure substances n The SOLVENT is the medium in which the SOLUTES are dissolved. (The solvent is usually the most abundant substance.) –Example: Solution: Salt Water Solute: Salt Solvent: Water
READ ONLY SECTION: n HOW DO SUBSTANCES DISSOLVE? –“According to the kinetic theory, the water molecules in each glass of tea are always moving. Some moving water molecules collide with sugar crystals. When this happens, energy is transferred to the sugar molecules at the surface of the crystal.” (Holt, p. 192)
The process of dissolution is favored by: n A decrease in the energy of the system (exothermic) n An increase in the disorder of the system (entropy)
Liquids Dissolving in Liquids n Liquids that are soluble in one another (“mix”) are MISCIBLE. –“LIKE dissolves LIKE” n POLAR liquids are generally soluble in other POLAR liquids. n NONPOLAR liquids are generally soluble in other NONPOLAR liquids.
Factors affecting rate of dissolution: n Surface area / particle size –Greater surface area, faster it dissolves n Temperature –Most solids dissolve faster @ higher temps n Agitation –Stirring/shaking will speed up dissolution
Saturation n Unsaturated solution – is able to dissolve more solute n Saturated solution – has dissolved the maximum amount of solute n Supersaturated solution – has dissolved excess solute (at a higher temperature). Solid crystals generally form when this solution is cooled.
SOLUBILITY n Solubility = the amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent
Factors Affecting Solubility n The nature of the solute and solvent: different substances have different solubilities n Temperature: many solids substances become more soluble as the temp of a solvent increases; however, gases are less soluble in liquids at higher temps. n Pressure: Only affects the solubility of gases. As pressure increases, the solubility of gases increases.