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Starting a vegetable garden All you need to know to start your backyard vegetable garden!

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Presentation on theme: "Starting a vegetable garden All you need to know to start your backyard vegetable garden!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Starting a vegetable garden All you need to know to start your backyard vegetable garden!

2 Find your climate zone Duncan is Zone 3: at 3500 to 5000 feet elevation, corresponds to USDA zone 8b, Sunset National Garden zone 10

3 Questions to answer before you begin: Who will be doing the work? Who will be doing the work? What does your family like to eat? What does your family like to eat? How will you use the produce? How will you use the produce? How much space is available? How much space is available?

4 Designing your garden It is best to begin with a drawing that shows arrangement and spacing of crops. It is best to begin with a drawing that shows arrangement and spacing of crops. 5 ft place tall plants on North side Group plants by length of growing period Plant where there is at least 6 hours of sun Dont plant vegetables of same family near each other more often than once every 3 years. This helps prevent disease. Top crop green bush bean (50 days) Crimson sweet watermelons (85 days) Dixie summer squash (41 days) Clemson spineless okra (56 days) Sweet slice cucumber (62 days)

5 Vegetable groups according to family FamilyVegetable Amaryllidaceae garlic, leek, onion Chenopodiaceae beet, spinach Compositae endive, lettuce, sunflower Cruciferae broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, collards, kale kohlrabi, mustard, radish, rutabaga, turnip Cucurbitaceae cucumber, muskmelon, pumpkin, squash, watermelon Gramineaecorn Leguminosae bean, pea, peanut Liliaceaeasparagus Malvaceaeokra Solanaceae eggplant, pepper, tomato Umbelliferae carrot, celery, parsley, parsnip

6 Preparing your soil Ideal soil is deep, well drained and has high organic matter content Ideal soil is deep, well drained and has high organic matter content Soil testing can be helpful. In Arizona, it is common that soils lack Nitrogen and Phosphates. Soil testing can be helpful. In Arizona, it is common that soils lack Nitrogen and Phosphates. Tillage equipment varies on the size of your garden Tillage equipment varies on the size of your garden

7 Seed selection Purchase from dependable companies Purchase from dependable companies expensive but more variety expensive but more variety Willhite, park seed, gurneys Willhite, park seed, gurneys Cheap and local Cheap and local Walmart, home-depot, safford builders Walmart, home-depot, safford builders Saving your own seed Saving your own seed Difficult for beginners Difficult for beginners Be wary of cross-pollination! Be wary of cross-pollination! not all plants produce seed the same way not all plants produce seed the same way Test for germination rate Test for germination rate

8 VegetableYearsVegetableYears Asparagus3Leek1 Bean3Lettuce5 Beet4Muskmelon5 Broccoli4Mustard4 Brussels sprouts 4Okra2 Cabbage4Onion1 Carrot3Parsley2 Cauliflower4Parsnip1 Celery5Pea3 Chinese cabbage 4Pepper3 Collard4Pumpkin4 Corn, sweet 1Radish4 Cress, water 5Rutabaga4 Cucumber5Spinach4 Eggplant5Squash4 Endive5Tomato3 Kale4Turnip5 Kohlrabi4Watermelon5

9 Starting seeds indoors Grow-light systems and grow mats Grow-light systems and grow mats Warms roots, encourages efficient growth Warms roots, encourages efficient growth Germination stations Germination stations Greenhouse effect, seedlings emerge quickly Greenhouse effect, seedlings emerge quickly Various containers Various containers Egg cartons, yogurt tubs, milk cartons, cans Egg cartons, yogurt tubs, milk cartons, cans Peat pots Peat pots Can sow directly, doesnt disturb roots Can sow directly, doesnt disturb roots

10 Starting seeds outdoors Depends on soil type Depends on soil type Sandy soil: plant seed deeper Sandy soil: plant seed deeper Silty/clay soil: cover seed only 2 -3 times diameter of seed Silty/clay soil: cover seed only 2 -3 times diameter of seed Depends on type of seed Depends on type of seed Carrots, beans and peas are best at broadcast seeding Carrots, beans and peas are best at broadcast seeding Melons, squash, corn and cucumbers are best at hill planting Melons, squash, corn and cucumbers are best at hill planting Depends on soil temperature Depends on soil temperature Cold soil will often rot the seeds if planted to early Cold soil will often rot the seeds if planted to early Optimum soil temperature chart on next page Optimum soil temperature chart on next page

11 VEGETABLE MIN. (° F) RANGE (°F) OPTIMUM (°F) MAX (° F) DAYS TO GERMINATION BEAN d 60° 60° - 85° 80°95° CABBAGE a, b 40° 45° - 95° 85°100° CARROT b 40° 45° - 85° 80°95° CORN d 50° 60° - 95° 95°105° CUCUMBER c, d 60° 75° - 95° 95°105° EGGPLANT c 60° 40° - 80° 85°95° MUSKMELON e 60° 75° - 95° 90°100° OKRA e 60° 70° - 95° 95°105° PEPPER c 60° 65° - 95° 85°95° PUMPKIN d 60° 70° - 90° 95°100° RADISH b 40° 45° - 90° 95°95° SQUASH d 60° 70° - 95° 95°100° TOMATO c 59° 60° - 85° 85°95° WATERMELON e 60° 70° - 95° 95°105°

12 Transplanting Prepare soil prior to planting Prepare soil prior to planting Disrupt roots as little as possible Disrupt roots as little as possible Make sure plants are hardened off Make sure plants are hardened off Protect plants Protect plants newspaper, boxes, jugs newspaper, boxes, jugs Use a starter solution Use a starter solution Manure tea, fish emulsion, purchased solution Manure tea, fish emulsion, purchased solution

13 Optimum transplanting temperatures and dates Vegetable Day 2 (°F) Night (°F) Time (weeks) Sweet Corn 70° - 75° 60° - 65° Cucumber 70° - 75° 60° - 65° Eggplant 70° - 80° 65° - 70° Lettuce 70° - 80° 50° - 55° Muskmelon 70° - 75° 60° - 65° Onion 60° - 65° 55° - 60° Pepper 65° - 75° 60° - 65° Summer Squash 70° - 75° 60° - 65° Tomato 70° - 75° 65° - 75° Watermelon 70° - 80° 65° - 70° 3 - 4

14 Transplant Production Data Easily Survive Transplanting Require Care in the Operation Not Successfully Transplanted by Usual Methods BroccoliBeetsBeans Cabbage Carrots (young) Corn CauliflowerCeleryCucumbers EggplantChardPeas Lettuce Melon (2 true leaves) Okra Chinese cabbage Squash (2 true leaves) Sweet potato slips Onion (tends to bolt) Tomatoes Pepper

15 Irrigation Soil moisture is imperative Soil moisture is imperative mulching helps smother weeds, and hold soil for plants mulching helps smother weeds, and hold soil for plants Shading allows soil to retain moisture Shading allows soil to retain moisture Depends on soil type Depends on soil type Clayey soils hold water tightly Clayey soils hold water tightly Sandy soils need additional organic matter to retain water Sandy soils need additional organic matter to retain water Various types of irrigation Various types of irrigation Water can Water can Soaker hose Soaker hose flood flood Drip irrigation Drip irrigation sprinkler sprinkler

16 Fertilizing your garden How fertile is the soil naturally? How fertile is the soil naturally? How much organic matter is present? How much organic matter is present? What kind of fertilizer is being applied? What kind of fertilizer is being applied? What crops are being grown? What crops are being grown? some crops are heavy feeders while some are light feeders some crops are heavy feeders while some are light feeders

17 Heavy Feeders Light Feeders AsparagusLettuceCarrotAlfalfa BeetOkraGarlicBeans Broccoli * ParsleyLeekClover Brussels sprouts * Pepper Mustard Greens Peas Cabbage * PotatoOnionPeanut Cantaloupe * Pumpkin * Parsnip Soybean s CauliflowerRadishRutabaga CeleryRhubarbShallot CollardSpinach Sweet Potato Corn, Sweet * Squash, Summer * Swiss Chard Eggplant * Strawberry EndiveSunflower Kalle Tomato * Kohlrabi Watermelon *

18 Controlling weeds Cultivation Cultivation Hand digging, hoes, roto-tiller Hand digging, hoes, roto-tiller Mulching Mulching Organic mulch, black plastic, old carpet, Organic mulch, black plastic, old carpet, Close spacing Close spacing Prevents weed seedlings from sunlight Prevents weed seedlings from sunlight Herbicides Herbicides Must be used carefully, follow all directions! Must be used carefully, follow all directions! Natural methods Natural methods Cinnamon oil, thyme, dish detergent Cinnamon oil, thyme, dish detergent

19 Types of crops Cool-season vegetables include beet, broccoli, cabbage, carrot, lettuce, onion, pea, potato, radish, spinach and turnip. Because they are hardy or frost tolerant and germinate in cold soil they can be planted in winter or early spring depending on location. For best quality these crops need to mature during cooler periods rather than in the heat of the summer. Cool-season vegetables include beet, broccoli, cabbage, carrot, lettuce, onion, pea, potato, radish, spinach and turnip. Because they are hardy or frost tolerant and germinate in cold soil they can be planted in winter or early spring depending on location. For best quality these crops need to mature during cooler periods rather than in the heat of the summer. Warm-season vegetables include beans, cucumber, eggplant, melons, pepper, pumpkin, squash, sweet corn, sweet potato and tomato. These do not tolerate frost but need warm temperatures to set and properly mature fruit. However, temperatures too high reduce quality; ex.- sunburn fruit, poor colored tomatoes and poor ear fill in sweet corn. Warm-season vegetables include beans, cucumber, eggplant, melons, pepper, pumpkin, squash, sweet corn, sweet potato and tomato. These do not tolerate frost but need warm temperatures to set and properly mature fruit. However, temperatures too high reduce quality; ex.- sunburn fruit, poor colored tomatoes and poor ear fill in sweet corn.

20 Vegetable Yields Vegetables Average Crop Expected Per 100 Feet Fresh Storage Canning or Freezing Beans, Snap Bush 120 lb plants feet Beans, Snap Pole 150 lb feet feet Carrots 100 lb feet feet Corn, Sweet 10 dozen feet feet Cucumbers 120 lb hills hills Okra 100 lb feet feet Onions (plants/sets) 100 lb feet feet Peppers 60 lb plants Pumpkins 100 lb hills Radishes 100 bunches feet Squash, Summer 150 lb hills Tomatoes 100 lb plants plants Watermelon 40 fruits 2-4 hills

21 Planting Vegetables Vegetables Plants or Seed per 100 feet Spacing (Inches) Number Days Ready for Use RowsPlants Beans, snap bush 1/2 lb Beans, snap pole 1/2 lb Carrots 1/2 oz Corn, sweet 3-4 oz Cucumbers 1/2 oz Eggplant 1/8 oz Okra 2 oz Peppers 1/8 oz Pumpkins 1/2 oz Radishes 1 oz Squash, summer 1 oz Tomatoes 50 pl. or 1/8 oz Watermelon 1 oz

22 Planting Dates Vegetable Region feet Elevation Bean, bush Mar. 1 - Apr. 1 July 15 - Aug. 15 Bean, pole July 15 - Aug. 10 Cantaloupe Mar June 1 Carrot Aug Mar. 15 Corn, sweet Mar Apr. 1 July 15 - Aug. 15 Cucumber Mar May 15 Aug. 1 - Sept. 1 Eggplant Apr. 1 - May 15 Muskmelon Apr. 1 - July 15 Mustard Sept. 1 - Feb. 1 Okra Apr. 1 - June 15 Pepper (seed) Feb Mar. 15 Pumpkin Apr. 1 - July 15 Radish Aug. 5 - May 1 Squash, summer Mar July 15 Tomato (seed) Jan Feb. 15 Watermelon Mar June 1

23 Container Gardening Location Location Window sill, patio, balcony, doorstep Window sill, patio, balcony, doorstep Crops Crops Carrots, radishes, lettuce, herbs, tomatoes, peppers Carrots, radishes, lettuce, herbs, tomatoes, peppers Containers Containers Good drainage, allows growth, clay, plastic, metal Good drainage, allows growth, clay, plastic, metal Growing media Growing media Package potting soil is best Package potting soil is best Watering Watering Must be done regularly Must be done regularly Fertilizing Fertilizing , occasional manure tea, occasional fish emulsion , occasional manure tea, occasional fish emulsion

24 activity What type of garden are you going to grow? What type of garden are you going to grow? What 3 crops are you going to grow? What 3 crops are you going to grow? Draw your plan Draw your plan Use the internet to navigate through the following sites: Use the internet to navigate through the following sites: Find prices, varieties of seed that grow best in your zone, find our zone, days to harvest and any diseases the plants are resistant too. Compare the 3 sites and choose your favorite. Be sure to explain why (site is easy to navigate, cheap prices, lots of information, ect.) Find prices, varieties of seed that grow best in your zone, find our zone, days to harvest and any diseases the plants are resistant too. Compare the 3 sites and choose your favorite. Be sure to explain why (site is easy to navigate, cheap prices, lots of information, ect.)

25 References Arizona master gardener Arizona master gardener


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