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Week 3 – Interdisciplinary Nature of Studying Organizations

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1 Week 3 – Interdisciplinary Nature of Studying Organizations
MGT ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Dr. K. A. S. P. Kaluarachchi Senior Lecturer Department of Management and Organization Studies Faculty of Management and Finance University of Colombo

2 At the end of this lesson, you will be able to:
Learning Outcomes At the end of this lesson, you will be able to: Locate an overview of disciplines that contribute to the field of OB Know Psychology’s contribution to the field of OB Know Social Psychology’s contribution to the OB field Know Sociology’s contribution to the field of OB Know Anthropology’s contribution to the field of OB Describe challenges and opportunities for OB 4/22/2017

3 Disciplines that Contribute to the OB Field
OB is an applied behavioral science contributed from a number of behavioral disciplines; psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology Psychology’s contributions to OB is mainly at the individual or micro level of analysis Other disciplines contributed to macro concepts such as group and organizational processes 4/22/2017

4 Psychology’s Contribution to the OB Field
Psychology seeks to measure, explain, and change the behavior of humans The knowledge of OB contributed are learning theorists, personality theorists, counseling psychologists, and, industrial and organizational psychologists 4/22/2017

5 Psychology’s Contribution to the OB Field....
Early organizational psychologists studied the problems of fatigue, boredom, and other working conditions that could impede efficient work performance Recent contributions include learning, perception, personality, emotions, training, leadership effectiveness, needs and motivational forces, job satisfaction, decision-making processes, performance appraisals, attitude measurement, employee-selection techniques, work design, and job stress 4/22/2017

6 Social Psychology’s Contribution to the OB Field
Social psychology , generally considered a branch of psychology, blends concepts from both psychology and sociology to focus on peoples’ influence on one another One major study area is change —how to implement it and how to reduce barriers to it Social psychologists also contribute to measuring, understanding, and changing attitudes; identifying communication patterns; and building trust Finally, they have made important contributions to the study of group behavior, power, and conflict 4/22/2017

7 Sociology’s Contribution to the OB Field
Sociology studies people in relation to their social environment or culture Sociologists have contributed to OB through their study of group behavior in organizations, particularly formal and complex organizations They have studied organizational culture, formal organization theory and structure, organizational technology, communications, power, and conflict 4/22/2017

8 Anthropology’s Contribution to the OB Field
Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities Anthropologists’ work on cultures and environments helped understand differences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behavior between people in different countries and organizations Studies on organizational culture, organizational environments, and differences among national cultures are results of the work of anthropologists or those using their methods 4/22/2017

9 Challenges and Opportunities for OB
Responding to Economic Pressures Managing employees well when times are bad is more difficult when times are good. Hence OB approaches differ accordingly. In good times, understanding how to reward, satisfy, and retain employees is essential. In bad times, issues like stress, decision making, and coping with change are in front 4/22/2017

10 Challenges and Opportunities for OB……
Responding to Globalization The world has become a global village Increased foreign assignments Working with people from different cultures Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labor 4/22/2017

11 Challenges and Opportunities for OB……
Managing Workforce Diversity One of the most important challenges for organizations today is adapting to people who are different (workforce diversity) It acknowledges a workforce of women and men; many racial and ethnic groups; individuals with a variety of physical or psychological abilities; and people who differ in age and sexual orientation 4/22/2017

12 Challenges and Opportunities for OB……
Improving Customer Service Many organizations have failed because their employees failed to please customers. Management needs to create a customer-responsive culture. OB can provide considerable guidance in helping managers create such cultures—employees are friendly and courteous, accessible, knowledgeable, prompt in responding to customer needs, and willing to do what’s necessary to please the customer 4/22/2017

13 Challenges and Opportunities for OB……
Improving People Skills Relevant OB concepts and theories help you predict and explain the behavior of people at work. You’ll also gain insights into specific people skills that you can use on the job. E.g. Ways to design motivating jobs, techniques for improving your listening skills, and how to create more effective teams 4/22/2017

14 Challenges and Opportunities for OB……
Stimulating Innovation and Change Today’s successful organizations must foster innovation and master the art of change. Organizations that maintain their flexibility, continually improve their quality and beat their competition in the marketplace with constant innovation products and services 4/22/2017

15 Challenges and Opportunities for OB……
Working in Networked Organizations Networked organizations allow people to communicate and work together. Independent contractors can telecommute via computers to workplaces around the globe and change employers as the demand for their services changes 4/22/2017

16 Challenges and Opportunities for OB……
Helping Employees Balance Work–Life Conflicts Organizations that don’t help their people achieve work–life balance will find it difficult to attract and retain the most capable and motivated employees The field of OB offers a number of suggestions to guide managers in designing workplaces and jobs that can help employees deal with work–life conflicts 4/22/2017

17 Challenges and Opportunities for OB……
Creating a Positive Work Environment A real growth area in OB research is positive organizational scholarship (also called positive organizational behavior), which studies how organizations develop human strengths, foster vitality and resilience, and unlock potential 4/22/2017

18 Challenges and Opportunities for OB……
Improving Ethical Behavior Today’s managers must create an ethically healthy climate for their employees, where they can do their work productively with minimal ambiguity about what right and wrong behaviors are. Companies that promote a strong ethical mission, encourage employees to behave with integrity, and provide strong ethical leadership 4/22/2017

19 Questions and Answers ??//
Thank you very much! 4/22/2017

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