Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Behavior Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 11/e Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge 1-2
After reading this chapter, you should be able to: 1-3 1. Define organizational behavior (OB). 2. Explain the value to OB of systematic study. 3. Identify the major behavioral science disciplines that contribute to OB. 4. Demonstrate why few absolutes apply to OB. 5. Identify the challenges and opportunities managers have in applying OB concepts. 6. Identify the three levels of analysis in OB.
The Field of Organizational Behavior 1-4 Organizational Behavior studies the influence that individuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organizations. Its chief goal is to apply that knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.
Focal Points of OB 1-5 Jobs Work Absenteeism Employment turnover Productivity Human performance Management
Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study 1-6 Intuition: your “gut feeling” explanation of behavior. Systematic study improves ability to accurately predict behavior. Assumes behavior is not random. Fundamental consistencies underlie behavior. These can be identified and modified to reflect individual differences.
Systematic Study 1-7 Examines relationships. Attempts to attribute causes and effects. Bases conclusions on scientific evidence: On data gathered under controlled conditions. Data is measured and interpreted in a reasonably rigorous manner.
Evidence-Based Management 1-8 Complements systematic study. Bases decisions on the best available scientific evidence. Forces managers to become more scientific in their thinking.
Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field 1-9 PsychologySocial PsychologySociologyAnthropology Micro: The Individual Macro: Groups & Organizations
Few Absolutes in OB 1-10 Impossible to make simple and accurate generalizations Human beings are complex and diverse OB concepts must reflect situational conditions: contingency variables Contingency Variable (Z) Independent Variable (X) Dependent Variable (Y) In American Culture Boss Gives “Thumbs Up” Sign Understood as Complimenting In Iranian or Australian Cultures Boss Gives “Thumbs Up” Sign Understood as Insulting - “Up Yours!”
Challenges and Opportunities for OB 1-11 Responding to Economic Pressures Responding to Globalization Managing Workplace Diversity Improving Customer Service Improving People Skills Stimulating Innovation and Change Coping with “Temporariness” Working in Networked Organizations Helping Employees with Work-Life Conflicts Improving Ethical Behavior
Responding to Economic Pressures 1-12 Effective management is especially important during tough economic times. Employees look to their managers to provide security during the instability of a recession.
Responding to Globalization 1-13 Increased foreign assignments Differing needs and aspirations in workforce Working with people from different cultures Domestic motivational techniques and managerial styles may not work Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labor
Managing Workforce Diversity 1-14 Workforce diversity: organizations are becoming a more heterogeneous mix of people in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation
Diversity Implications 1-15 “Managers have to shift their philosophy from treating everyone alike to recognizing differences and responding to those differences in ways that ensure employee retention and greater productivity while, at the same time, not discriminating.”
Improving Customer Service & People Skills 1-16 The majority of employees in developed nations work in service jobs and they must know how to please their customers. People skills are essential to succeed in today’s organizations.
Temporariness 1-18 Jobs are constantly changing Skills need to be updated for workers to stay on target Workers need to be able to deal with change Employees need to be able to cope with flexibility, spontaneity and unpredictability
Working in Networked Organizations 1-19 Managers must adapt their skills and communication styles to succeed in an online environment
Helping Employees handle work-life conflict 1-20 The line between work and non work has blurred and managers are increasingly dealing with conflicts that arise between work and life away from work.
Thinking Positive 1-21 Creating a positive work environment can be a competitive advantage Positive Organizational Scholarship (Positive OB): Examines how organizations develop human strengths, foster vitality and resilience, and unlock potential. Focus is on employee strengths, not their weaknesses.
Three Levels of OB Analysis 1-22 Chapters 2 - 7 Chapters 8 - 13 Chapters 14 - 16 Plan of the Book
Implications for Managers 1-23 OB helps with: Insights to improve people skills Valuing of workforce diversity Empowering people and creating a positive work environment Dealing with change in the workplace Coping in a world of temporariness Creating an ethically healthy work environment
Keep in Mind… 1-24 OB’s goal is to understand and predict human behavior in organizations. Fundamental consistencies underlie behavior. It is more important than ever to learn OB concepts. Both managers and employees must learn to cope with temporariness.
Summary 1-25 1. Defined Organizational Behavior (OB). 2. Show the value to OB of systematic study. 3. Identified the major behavioral science disciplines that contribute to OB. 4. Demonstrated how few absolutes apply in OB. 5. Identified the major challenges and opportunities managers have in applying OB concepts. 6. Identified the three levels of analysis in OB.