2 1900’s-1930’s1900- Russia- a scientist named Tsiolkovsky started testing rockets. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky developed the “Tsiolkovsky rocket equation”, or “ideal rocket equation”. This principle remains basic to today’s travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.1914- United States-a scientist named Goddard patented the first rocket. The patent was for a multi-stage rocket that used liquid fuel. The patent would become an important milestone in the history of rocketry Goddard's designs influenced the basic system elements and functions found in all modern-day liquid rocket engines.1926-United States (Massachusetts)- Goddard launches the first successful rocket. On March 16, 1926, Dr. Robert Goddard launched the first successful liquid-propellant rocket, at Auburn, Massachusetts.1930-Germany- V-2 spacecraft was made. a single-stage rocket fueled by alcohol and liquid oxygen. It stood 46.1 feet high and had a thrust of 56,000 pounds. The V-2 had a payload capacity of 2,200 pounds and could reach a velocity of 3,500 miles per hour.
3 1940’s-1950’s 1944-Germany-The V-2 spacecraft left earth’s atmosphere. On September 7th, 1944 the V-2 spacecraft was launched toward England by Wernher von Braun. Braun said that the rocket worked perfectly except for landing on the wrong planet.1954- United States- Viking spacecraft reached 159 miles above the Earth. On May 24, 1954, Viking research rocket No. 11 was launched at White Sands to climb to an altitude of 159 miles, and reached a speed of 4,300 miles per hour1957-Russia-Soviet satellite, Sputnik, became the first manmade object to orbit Earth. On October 4, 1957 Sputnik 1 was launched. Each of its 1440 orbits around the Earth took about 96 minutes.
4 1960’s1961-Russia-Soviet Yuri Gagarin becomes the first space traveler. On April 12, 1961 Yuri Gagarin launched into space from the Vostok 1. This day and man made history.1961-United States- (Alabama)-The Redstone rocket lifted. On October 27, 1961 NASA launched its first Saturn rocket. The 162-foot tall Saturn I rocket lifted off its Cape Canaveral launch pad. During the eight-minute flight the rocket reached a velocity of 3,607 miles an hour.1967-United States-Photograph of the moon taken by Lunar Orbiter. The first full picture of the whole Earth was taken by Lunar Orbiter 5 in August, The mission was successful with no problems.1969-United States-Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon. He was the mission commander of the Apollo 11 moon landing mission on July 20, He and Buzz Aldrin spent 21/2 hours exploring the moon.
5 1970’s1971-Russia-First space station, Salyut 1 (ends orbit 1973). The Salyut 1 was the first space station of any kind, launched by the USSR on April 19, It was the first space station launched in orbit of the earth and remained in orbit until May 28, 1973.1971-United States-Mariner 9 took pictures of Mars. The first spacecraft to actual go into orbit around Mars and stay there for awhile was Mariner 9. It launched on May 30, Mariner 9 stayed in orbit for 11 months and took thousands of pictures and measurements of Mars.1972-United States- Apollo 16 takes pictures of Earth.The mission was launched on April 16, 1972, and concluded on April 27. Astronauts took several photos of Earth, one of which was with North America in the background.
6 1970’s (cont.)1973-United States- America launches the Space Station. First U.S. space station launched. Skylab was the first US space station and the world's first big space station. Skylab Space Station’s purpose was to serve as a laboratory for scientific experiments in space until February It was launched on May 14, 1973.1976-United States- Images from satellite show martian soil – from first US space probe to land on another planet, Viking 1. Pictures of the Martian surface are taken by Viking 1, the first U.S. attempt to soft land a spacecraft on another planet, which succeeded.1979-United States- Skylab shows the image of the sun’s corona. The pictures were taken using soft x-ray telescope. These photos were used to help scientists learn more about the sun.
7 1980’s1981 -United States- The first re-usable shuttle, Colombia, was launched. The US space shuttle, first launched on April 12, 1981, was the world's first reusable space craft. The space craft was used to test experiments to help scientist learn more about space.1983 -United States- Challenger takes a photo of Earth that shows Australia. In 1983 the spaceship went into space and captured a photo of Earth with a clear shot of Australia. It was taken on June 26, 1983.1986- Russia- Mir Space Station launched. A Soviet and later Russian Space Station, was operating in low Earth orbit from 1986 to The first crew arrived on board Mir on March 15, 1986 and it remained more or less continuously occupied until November 2000.
8 1990’s1990 –United States- Hubble Telescope launched. The Hubble Space Telescope was deployed from the space shuttle Discovery on April 25, 1990.1995 –United States-Galileo sends back photos and data about Jupiter’s composition. Galileo arrived at Jupiter on December 7, It began sending back information and photographs to mission control on Earth.1996 –United States-Mars Pathfinder landed on Mars and released the “Rover”. Mars Pathfinder was launched on December 4, 1996 by NASA. After seven months it landed and released a 22 pound robotic rover which conducted many experiments on the surface of Mars.1998 –Russia-First modules of the International Space Station launched. On November 20, 1998 the first component of the space station was launched on a Russian rocket.