1900 Tsiolkovsky started testing rockets Country: Russia Results: Tsiolkovsky is considered to be one of the founding fathers of rocketry and astronautics. His works later inspired leading Soviet rocket engineers such as Sergey Korylov and Valentin Glushko and contributed to the early success of the Soviet space program. He is considered the father of space flight.
1914 Goddard patented the first rocket Country: U.S.A. Results: Goddard actually received 2 U.S. patents. One was for a rocket using liquid fuel. The other was for a two or three stage rocket using solid fuel. This led to the launching of rockets.
1926 Goddard launches the first successful rocket Country: U.S.A. Results: On March 16, 1926, Robert Goddard successfully launched the first liquid-fueled rocket in Auburn, Mass. The first-of-its-kind rocket reached an altitude of 41 feet, lasted 2 seconds and averaged about 60 miles per hour.
1930 Country: Germany Results: The V-2 was a single-stage rocket fueled by alcohol and liquid oxygen. It stood 46.1 feet high and had a thrust of 56,000 pounds. Also known as the A-4, it had a payload capacity of 2,200 pounds and could reach a velocity of 3,500 miles per hour. V-2 Spacecraft was made
1944 V-2 spacecraft left Earth’s atmosphere Country: Germany Result: Breaking the sound barrier, it reached an altitude of sixty miles. It was the world's first launch of a ballistic missile and the first rocket ever to go into the fringes of space.
1954 Viking Spacecraft reached 159 miles above the Earth Country: USA Results: The purpose of the Viking was to provide a vehicle better suited to scientific research. The Viking had profound influence on the design of the rocket.
1957 Soviet Satellite, Sputnik, became the first manmade object to orbit the Earth Country: Soviet Union Results: Apart from its value as a technological first, Sputnik also helped to identify the upper atmospheric layers density, through measuring the satellite's orbital changes. It also provided data on radio-signal distribution in the ionosphere. Pressurized nitrogen in the satellite's body provided the first opportunity for meteroid detection.
1961 The Redstone rocket lifted Country: America Results: inaugurated America's human spaceflight program
1961 Soviet Yuri Gagarin becomes the first space traveler Country: Soviet Union Results: As pilot of the spaceship Vostok 1, he proved that man could endure the rigors of lift- off, re-entry, and weightlessness. Yuri became an international hero and legend
1967 Photograph of the moon taken by Lunar Orbiter Country: USA Results: Photos helped select Apollo landing sites by mapping the Moon's surface.
1969 Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon Country: USA Results: Neil Armstrong made a huge step for mankind.
1971 – Mariner 9 took pictures of Mars Country: USA Results: helped in the exploration of Mars; It was to study temporal changes in the Martian atmosphere and surface. Mars' two moons were also to be analyzed. Mariner 9 more than met its objectives.
1971 – First space station, Salyut 1 Country: Soviet Union Result: The main purpose of Salyut 1 was to study the effects of long duration spaceflight on the human body and to take photographs of the Earth from space. It carried a telescope for studying star spectra, a greenhouse to analyze plant growth, a camera and film plates to study cosmic rays and a telescope that could detect gamma rays coming from the sun. However, the cover on the gamma ray telescope failed to jettison, making it unusable.
1972 Apollo 16 takes pictures of Earth Country: USA Results: Apollo 16 was the tenth manned mission in the Apollo program. It was the fifth mission to land on the moon and the first to land in a highlands area. The mission was launched on April 16, 1972, and concluded on April 27. It was a J-class mission, featuring a Lunar Rover and brought back 94.7 kg of lunar samples.
1973 America launches the space station Country: USA Results: NASA gained valuable knowledge about human performance under microgravity conditions.
1973 First US space station launched (Skylab) Country: USA Results: SKYLAB was the first NASA space station, launched May 14, 1973 and visited by three crews during 1973 and 1974. It was constructed from the upper-stage booster shell of a Saturn rocket (S-IV-B). The spacecraft became famous as an on-the-job training site for space repairs by astronauts, having experienced numerous problems during its launch and in space.
1976 Images from satellite show martian soil – from first US space probe to land on another planet, Viking 1 Country: USA Results: Much of what we now know about Mars is due to the extraordinary efforts of the Viking. Image Above: This image, taken by the Viking 1 lander shortly after it touched down on Mars July 20, 1976, is the first photograph ever taken from the surface of Mars. Credit: NASA
1979 Skylab shows the image of the sun’s corona Country: USA Results: gave the astronauts a fantastic view of the sun
1981 First re-usable shuttle, Columbia, was launched Country: USA Results: encouraged technology; made International Space Station possible; taught lessons for the designers and operators of NASA's next spaceships.
1983 Challenger takes photos of Earth that shows Australia Country: USA Results: helped map Australia
1986 Mir Space Station launched Country: Soviet Union Results: The Russian Space Station Mir endured 15 years in orbit, three times its planned lifetime. It outlasted the Soviet Union, that launched it into space. It hosted scores of crewmembers and international visitors. It raised the first crop of wheat to be grown from seed to seed in outer space. It was the scene of joyous reunions, feats of courage, moments of panic, and months of grim determination. It suffered dangerous fires, a nearly catastrophic collision, and darkened periods of out-of-control tumbling. Mir soared as a symbol of Russia’s past space glories and her potential future as a leader in space. And it served as the stage—history’s highest stage—for the first large-scale, technical partnership between Russia and the United States after a half-century of mutual antagonism.
1990 Hubble Telescope launched Country: USA Results: Hubble was a vital research tool and a public relations boon for astronomy.
1995 Galileo sends back photos and data about Jupiter’s composition Country: USA Results: Galileo changed the way we look at our solar system. The spacecraft was the first to fly past an asteroid and the first to discover a moon of an asteroid. It provided the only direct observations of a comet colliding with a planet.
1996 Mars Pathfinder landed on mars and released the “Rover” Country: USA Results: analyzed the Martian atmosphere, climate, geology, and the composition of its rocks and soil. Rover
1998 First modules of the International Space Station launched Countries: Russia & USA Results: Primarily a research laboratory, the ISS offers an advantage over spacecraft such as NASA's Space Shuttle because it is a long-term platform in the space environment, where extended studies are conducted.