1 5 Classical Greece, 2000 B.C. –300 B.C. QUIT5CHAPTERClassical Greece, 2000 B.C. –300 B.C.Chapter OverviewTime LineSECTION1Cultures of the Mountains and the SeaMAPSECTION2Warring City-StatesSECTION3Democracy and Greece’s Golden AgeSECTION4Alexander—Empire BuilderGRAPHSECTION5The Spread of Hellenistic CultureVisual Summary
2 5 Classical Greece, 2000 B.C. –300 B.C. HOME5CHAPTERClassical Greece, 2000 B.C. –300 B.C.Chapter OverviewThe early Mediterranean cultures set standards in the arts, law, government, and sciences that are spread by Alexander the Great and eventually have a profound influence on the thought and institutions of Western nations.
3 5 Classical Greece, 2000 B.C. –300 B.C. HOME Time Line 2000 B.C. CHAPTERClassical Greece, 2000 B.C. –300 B.C.Time Line2000 B.C. Minoan civilization prospers on Crete.About 1200 B.C. Trojan War takes place.479 B.C. Greece triumphs in Persian Wars.2000 B.C.300 B.C.1500 B.C. Mycenaean culture thrives on Greek mainland.750 B.C. Greek city-states flourish.334 B.C. Alexander starts to build his Empire.
4 Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea Key Idea 1 HOME1Cultures of theMountains and the SeaKey IdeaThe island cultures of Minoa and Crete develop in the Mediterranean, while Greek-speaking peoples, separated by mountainous terrain, establish individual city-states.OverviewAssessment
5 Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea Overview 1 • Mycenaeans HOME1Cultures of theMountains and the SeaTERMS & NAMESOverview• Mycenaeans• Trojan War• Dorians• Homer• epics• mythsMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWPhysical geography caused separate groups of Greek-speaking peoples to develop isolated societies.The seeds of much of Western cultural heritage were planted during this time period.Assessment
6 Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea 1 1 HOME1Cultures of theMountains and the SeaSection1Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List examples of how geography affected early Greek civilization.Geographic FeatureEffectsSeaUnited parts of Greece; sea trade was important as Greece had few natural resources.LandMountains made transportation, communication among cities difficult; small, independent communities developed; poor resources spurred growth of colonies; poor food production limited population growth.ClimateModerate climate allowed for an outdoor lifestyle, open-air discussions.continued . . .
7 Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea 1 1 HOME1Cultures of theMountains and the SeaSection1Assessment2. Why did the lack of writing represent a setback to the development of Greek civilization? THINK ABOUT• Minoan and Mycenaean accomplishments• uses of writing• other forms of communicationANSWERPossible Responses:• No means to record information• Communication limited to oral means—trade suffered• Limited ability to transmit knowledge and culture to succeeding generationscontinued . . .
8 Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea 1 1 HOME1Cultures of theMountains and the SeaSection1Assessment3. Why do you think that early Greek epics and myths are so well known and studied in today’s society?THINK ABOUT• arete• Greek ideals compared to ideals in today’s world• early Greeks’ purpose of storytellingANSWERPossible Response:America idealizes virtue and the individual, or the hero, just as Greece did; people are still intrigued by the mysteries of nature.End of Section 1
9 Warring City-States Key Idea 2 HOME2Warring City-StatesMAPKey IdeaRival city-states develop distinct political systems. Athens takes its first steps toward democracy, and Sparta develops into a military state.OverviewAssessment
10 Warring City-States Overview 2 • polis • acropolis • monarchy HOME2Warring City-StatesMAPTERMS & NAMESOverview• polis• acropolis• monarchy• aristocracy• oligarchy• phalanx• tyrant• helot• democracy• Persian WarsMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWMany political systems in today’s world mirror the varied forms of government that evolved in Greece.The growth of city-states in Greece led to the development of several political systems, including democracy.Assessment
11 HOME2Warring City-StatesMAPSection2Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the major battles of the Persian Wars in Greece. For each battle, include the victor.First BattleSecond BattleThird BattleFourth BattleBattle at MarathonAtheniansSalamisAtheniansConfrontation at ThermopylaePersiansPlataea PlainSpartanscontinued . . .
12 HOME2Warring City-StatesMAPSection2Assessment2. How was living in Athens different from living in Sparta? THINK ABOUT• roles of citizens• type/form of government• societal valuesANSWERPossible Responses:• Athens had built a democracy, Sparta was ruled by kings and was a military stateFor men, daily life in Athens was centered around the polis; in Sparta, daily life for men was centered around military training• Athenians valued beauty, individuality, and freedom of thought; Spartans valued duty, strength, and discipline.End of Section 2
13 Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age Key Idea 3 HOME3Democracy andGreece’s Golden AgeKey IdeaAthens reaches a golden age in the arts, science, economics, and military power. War with Sparta and a plague bring an end to Athenian achievement.OverviewAssessment
14 Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age Overview 3 • direct democracy HOME3Democracy andGreece’s Golden AgeTERMS & NAMESOverview• direct democracy• classical art• tragedy• comedy• Peloponnesian War• philosophers• Socrates• Plato• AristotleMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWDemocratic principles and classical culture flourished during Greece’s golden age.At its height, Greece set lasting standards in art, politics, literature, and philosophy that are still adhered to today.Assessment
15 Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age 3 3 HOME3Democracy andGreece’s Golden AgeSection3Assessment1. List Pericles’ three goals for Athens. Give at least one example for each.Pericles’ GoalsStrengthen Athens’ democracy:Increased number of paid officials, increased citizen participationGlorify Athens: Hired artists, built architectural projects and the ParthenonHold and strengthen empire:Built navy through Delian League’s funds, protected overseas tradecontinued . . .
16 Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age 3 3 HOME3Democracy andGreece’s Golden AgeSection3Assessment2. Socrates believed in absolute standards for truth and justice. Sophists believed that standards of truth and justice are in the eye of the beholder. What is your opinion? THINK ABOUT• differences in values• purpose of law• circumstancesANSWER• Agree with the Sophists: Many cultural differences exist in the world; only one set of rules for justice and truth would not work because people would rebel.• Agree with Socrates: Standards exist for what is right and wrong; governing people in this way is more feasible because everyone knows what is expected.Possible Responses:continued . . .
17 Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age 3 3 HOME3Democracy andGreece’s Golden AgeSection3Assessment3. How does the concept of “hubris” from Greek tragedy apply to the Peloponnesian War? THINK ABOUT• Spartans’ and Athenians’ opinion of themselves• why “hubris” is a tragic flaw• why the war startedANSWER“Hubris” means the excessive pride that often leads to the downfall of a hero. Athens under Pericles was excessively proud of its sea power and seriously underestimated Sparta.Possible Response:End of Section 3
18 Alexander— Empire Builder Key Idea 4 HOME4Alexander—Empire BuilderKey IdeaAlexander conquers Greece, Persia, and Egypt and extends his empire to the Indus River. He spreads Greek culture throughout the empire.OverviewAssessment
19 Alexander— Empire Builder Overview 4 • Philip II • Macedonia HOME4Alexander—Empire BuilderTERMS & NAMESOverview• Philip II• Macedonia• Demosthenes• Alexander the Great• Darius IIIMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWAlexander the Great conquered Persia and Egypt and extended his empire to the Indus River in northwest India.Alexander’s empire extended across three continents that today consist of many nations and diverse cultures.Assessment
20 Alexander— Empire Builder Alexander’s Rule 4 4 HOME4Alexander—Empire BuilderSection4Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Describe how far north, south, east, and west Alexander ruled.Alexander’s RuleNorthWestSouthEastMacedoniaGreeceIndiaEgyptcontinued . . .
21 Alexander— Empire Builder 4 4 HOME4Alexander—Empire BuilderSection4Assessment2. If Alexander had lived, do you think he would have been as successful in ruling his empire as he was in building it? THINK ABOUT• skills needed for military leadership• skills needed to govern an empire• Alexander’s demonstrated abilitiesANSWERPossible Responses:• Yes. His ability to govern points to his intelligence and ability to lead.• No. He had an inflexible attitude, and military skills are not the same as political skills.End of Section 4
22 The Spread of Hellenistic Culture Key Idea 5 HOME5The Spread ofHellenistic CultureGRAPHKey IdeaHellenistic culture, a blend of Greek and other cultures, flourishes throughout Greece, Egypt, and Asia. Its achievements have a lasting influence on Western Europe.OverviewAssessment
23 The Spread of Hellenistic Culture Overview 5 • Hellenistic HOME5The Spread ofHellenistic CultureGRAPHTERMS & NAMESOverview• Hellenistic• Alexandria• Euclid• Archimedes• Colossus of RhodesMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWHellenistic culture, a blend of Greek and other influences, flourished throughout Greece, Egypt, and Asia.Western civilization today continues to be influenced by diverse cultures.Assessment
24 The Spread of Hellenistic Culture 5 5 HOME5The Spread ofHellenistic CultureGRAPHSection5Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List Hellenistic achievements in each of the four categories shown below.CategoryAchievementsastronomyDisproved the belief that the sun was smaller than Greece, advanced the theory that earth revolves around sungeometryEuclid’s The Elements, calculation of piphilosophyStoicism, EpicureanismartRealism in sculpture, Colossus of Rhodescontinued . . .
25 The Spread of Hellenistic Culture 5 5 HOME5The Spread ofHellenistic CultureGRAPHSection5Assessment2. Describe how the growth of Alexander’s empire spread Greek culture. THINK ABOUT• public vs. private art• realistic vs. ideal representations• the decline of the polisANSWERPossible Response:Greek culture and language traveled with Alexander’s armies. Many Greek and Macedonian merchants, artisans, and officials settled in the lands that he conquered and the colonies that he established.continued . . .
26 The Spread of Hellenistic Culture 5 5 HOME5The Spread ofHellenistic CultureGRAPHSection5Assessment3. The Hellenistic culture brought together Egyptian, Greek, Persian, and Indian influences. How is American culture a combination of different influences? Give examples of those influences. THINK ABOUT• American immigration• geographic regions/influences• your own cultural backgroundANSWERPossible Response:The United States has attracted peoples from many cultures. Their various religions, foods, languages, customs, and traditions have blended into or added to U.S. culture.End of Section 5