2Cultures of the Mountains and Sea 9. Why was sea travel important to early Greeks?Answer: Mountains made travel by land difficult.10. Why did the Greeks develop myths?Answer: to explain mysteries of nature and human behavior and teach cultural values.
3Warring City-States11. What were the two most powerful city-states in early Greece? Answer: Athens and Sparta 12. What were the consequences of the Persian Wars? Answer: City-states formed the Delian League; Athens became the dominant city-state, a flourishing of creativity in Athens.
4Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age 13. What were Pericles’ three goals for Athens? Answer: strengthen Athenian democracy, maintain and expand the Athenian empire, glorify Athens. 14. Who were the three renowned philosophers of the Golden Age? Answer: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
5Alexander’s Empire15. Why was Greece so easily conquered by Macedonia? Answer: Greek city-states were weakened and divided after the Peloponnesian War. Philip II had a powerful army and used brilliant military tactics. 16. What was the full extent of Alexander’s empire after his death? Answer: Greece in the West, Macedonia in the North, India in the East, Egypt in the South
6The Spread of Hellenistic Culture 17. What four cultural influences blended to form Hellenistic culture? Answer: Greek, Persian, Indian, Egyptian 18. What are some of the scientific achievements of the Hellenistic period? Answer: Eratosthenes estimated the Earth’s size, hypothesized motions of bodies in the solar system; Euclid organized findings of Greek geometry; Archimedes discovered laws governing simple machines.