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Problem-Based Learning

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Step 1: Problem-Solving 1.Determine what your group knows about solving the problem. 2.Identify what your group needs to know that they do not presently know. 3. Where can you get the information Francisco would need? Francisco wants to invite some friends over for a cookout. He has four and one-third pounds of hamburger and is trying to figure out how many friends he can invite over. Problem-Based Learning

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Step 2: Members of the group engage in self- directed study for additional information. For us: Francisco wants to invite some friends over for a cookout. He has four and one-third pounds of hamburger and is trying to figure out how many friends he can invite over. Problem-Based Learning http://www.aims.edu/student/assessment/A rithmetic.rtf http://argyll.epsb.ca/jreed/math8/strand1/12 06.htm Changing Mixed Numbers to Improper Fractions Dividing Proper/Improper Fractions

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STEP 3: The learners then return to the problem and apply what they learned to their work with the problem in order to more fully understand and resolve the problem. Francisco wants to invite some friends over for a cookout. He has four and one-third pounds of hamburger and is trying to figure out how many friends he can invite over. Problem-Based Learning

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STEP 4: After they have finished their problem, the learners assess themselves and each other to develop skills in self-assessment and the constructive assessment of peers. Self-assessment is a skill essential to effective independent learning. Make Presentation Francisco wants to invite some friends over for a cookout. He has four and one-third pounds of hamburger and is trying to figure out how many friends he can invite over. Problem-Based Learning

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Problem-based Learning: The primary distinction is the focus on introducing concepts to students by challenging them to solve a real world problem. Traditional Learning: In contrast to the more traditional approach of assigning an application problem at the end of a conceptual unit. www.udel.edu/pbl/cte/spr96-phys.html Traditional versus PBL learning

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In class, Susan takes notes by writing down everything the instructor says. She has come to the conclusion that her note taking strategy is not very effective. 1. Divide into groups of 4. 2. Select a Leader, Recorder, Encourager, and Presenter 3. Solve the problem with information the group already possess. 4. Identify what the group needs to learn to better understand the problem and how to resolve it. 1

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2 Go to Internet and explore this site: In class, Susan takes notes by writing down everything the instructor says. She has come to the conclusion that her note taking strategy is not very effective. http://www.ucc.vt.edu/stdysk/noteta ke.html

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Reform your groups, and apply what you have learned to creating a more effective note-taking strategy for Susan. Group comes to consensus on a solution. 3 In class, Susan takes notes by writing down everything the instructor says. She has come to the conclusion that her note taking strategy is not very effective.

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Presenter, with help of the group, presents the group solution to the problem. 4 In class, Susan takes notes by writing down everything the instructor says. She has come to the conclusion that her note taking strategy is not very effective.

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Students absorb, transcribe, memorize, and repeat information for content specific tasks such as quizzes and exams. Faculty members design course based on "ill- structured" problems that provide a role for the student in learning. Students are viewed as "empty vessels" or passive receivers of information. Faculty members seek to encourage student initiative, empower students. Students work in isolation. Students interact with faculty and students to provide immediate feedback about performance for improvement. Traditional versus PBL classroom

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Performance measured on content specific tasks. Students identify, analyze, and resolve problems using knowledge from previous experiences and courses, rather than simply recalling it. Learning is individualistic and competitive. Students experience learning in a collaborative and supportive environment. Students seek "right answer" to achieve success on a test. Faculty members discourage only one "right answer" but help students learn to frame questions, formulate problems, explore alternatives, and make effective decisions. Traditional versus PBL classroom

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Click to read source Instructor assumes the role of expert or formal authority. Faculty member role is as a facilitator, guide, co-learner, mentor, coach, or professional consultant. Faculty members organize content into lectures based on context of discipline. Faculty members design course based on "ill- structured" problem, andempower students. Faculty members enhance student motivation by providing real life problems and by understanding students' problems.

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Lecture based on one-way communication; information is conveyed to groups of students. Students work in groups to solve problems. Students acquire and apply knowledge in a variety of contexts. Students find resources, and faculty guide students to information and resources. Students seek useful and relevant knowledge to be able to apply toward job skills and employment. Grading is summative, and the instructor is the only evaluator. Students evaluate their own contributions as well as other members and the entire group. Traditional versus PBL classroom

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Boyer Commission Report Strategies – Require student to engage actively in: Framing of a significant question or set of questions, Research or creative exploration to find answers, Communication skills to convey the results. Such course structure encourages: Inquiry is the norm Problem solving becomes the focus Thinking critically is the process

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STEP 1: 1.In the PBL learning process learners encounter a problem and attempt to solve it with information they already possess allowing them to appreciate what they already know. 2.They also identify what they need to learn to better understand the problem and how to resolve it. The PBL Learning Process

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STEP 2: Once they have worked with the problem as far as possible and identified what they need to learn, the learners engage in self-directed study to research the information needed finding and using a variety of information resources. In this way learning is personalized to the needs and learning styles of the individual. The PBL Learning Process

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STEP 3: The learners then return to the problem and apply what they learned to their work with the problem in order to more fully understand and resolve the problem. The PBL Learning Process

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STEP 4: After they have finished their problem, the learners assess themselves and each other to develop skills in self-assessment and the constructive assessment of peers. Self- assessment is a skill essential to effective independent learning. Make Presentation The PBL Learning Process

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In PBL literature the term ill-structured is used to describe open-ended problems that have multiple solutions and require students to look at many methods before deciding on a particular solution. Francisco wants to invite some friends over for a cookout. He has four and one-third pounds of hamburger and is trying to figure out how many friends he can invite over. Ill-Structured Problems

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Ill-structured problems: require more information for understanding the problem than is initially available. contain multiple solution paths. change as new information is obtained. prevent students from knowing that they have made the right decision. generate interest and controversy and cause the learner to ask questions. are open-ended and complex enough to require collaboration and thinking beyond recall. contain content that is authentic to the discipline. Developing Ill-Structured Problems

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PBL requires students to be Metacognitively aware. Students must learn to be conscious of: 1.What information they already know about the problem, 2.What information they need to know to solve the problem, and 3.The strategies to use to solve the problem. Being able to articulate such thoughts helps students become more effective problem-solvers and self- directed learners.

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Students learn best by constructing solutions to open-ended, complex, and problematic activities with classmates, rather than listening passively to lectures. These types of activities promote discussion among group members and keep students motivated to learn more about the subject. http://ctl.stanford.edu/teach/speak/problem_based_learning.pdf PBL Problems

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Tamara is now 26, a single mother of a 7 year old son. She still works 15 hours a week in a department store, and is in the nursing program. She is having a difficult time managing and juggling her time between her daughter, work and school. She knows she is going to have to manage her time better, but just doesnt see how she can squeeze another minute out of her schedule. Step 1: Problem-Solving- Tamara Has a Time Problem 1.Determine what your group knows about time management and creating a time management plan for Tamara. 2.Identify what your group needs to know that they do not presently know. 3. Where can you get the information Tamara would need?

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Step 2: Problem-Solving- Tamara Has a Time Problem Once your group has worked with the problem as far as possible and identified what they need to learn, and have identified where to begin searching for the information, your group will need to begin researching the information needed. Tamara is now 26, a single mother of a 7 year old son. She still works 15 hours a week in a department store, and is in the nursing program. She is having a difficult time managing and juggling her time between her daughter, work and school. She knows she is going to have to manage her time better, but just doesnt see how she can squeeze another minute out of her schedule.

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Step 3: Problem-Solving- Tamara Has a Time Problem Your group will then return to the problem and apply what they learned to their work with the problem in order to more fully understand and resolve the problem. The group will come up with a time management plan to help Tamara learn to manage her time better. Tamara is now 26, a single mother of a 7 year old son. She still works 15 hours a week in a department store, and is in the nursing program. She is having a difficult time managing and juggling her time between her daughter, work and school. She knows she is going to have to manage her time better, but just doesnt see how she can squeeze another minute out of her schedule.

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Step 4: Problem-Solving- Tamara Has a Time Problem The groups Presenter will, with the help of the group, will present their time management plan.

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