2 Cooperative learning is an approach to organize classroom activities into academic and social learning experiences.It differs from group work, and it has been described as "structuring positive interdependence”
3 Students work in groups to complete tasks collectively toward academic goals. students learn cooperatively capitalize on one another’s resources and skills.Teacher's role changes from giving information to facilitating students' learning.Everyone succeeds when the group succeeds.
4 Ross and Smyth (1995) describe successful cooperative learning tasks as intellectually demanding,creative,open-ended, andinvolve higher order thinking tasks.
6 Elements of cooperative learning 1. Positive Interdependence :–The task must be structured so that members of the group sink or swim together; one member cannot succeed at the expense of others.
7 2. Face to Face Interaction : This exists when students assist and support one another’s efforts to learn.This occurs as students actively teach one another to solve problems and understand concepts.
8 3. Individual Accountability : This prevents a member from getting a free ride on the work of others and prevents low quality of work being accepted from an individual by peers in the group.4. Social Skills :Groups improve as members learn to contribute positively, acquire trust and manage conflict. These skills are not innate; they must be learned by the teacher and taught to the students..
9 Processing is essential to insure understanding. 5. Group Processing :Processing time is usually the most neglected aspect of classroom teaching.Processing is essential to insure understanding.Talented students often have learned to do this effectively on their own; average students can be taught to be more effective.
10 CO-OPERATIVE LEARNING TECHNIQUES Discussion:"A good give-and-take discussion can produce unmatched learning experiences as students articulate their ideas, respond to their classmates' points, and develop skills in evaluating the evidence of their own and others' positions."
11 1. Think-pair-share steps: Think: Students think independently about the question that has been posed, forming ideas of their own.Pair: Students are grouped in pairs to discuss their thoughts. students discuss their ideas and consider those of others.Share: Student pairs share their ideas with a larger group.sometime with the whole classExample:expansion,equations
12 Members of a group choose one partner from the group. 2. Three step interviewMembers of a group choose one partner from the group.The individual interview their partners by asking questions.They reverse roles and share their responses with the rest of the group.Example:ratio proportion
13 3) 3 Minutes review-:The instructor gives the teams 3 minutes toreview/clarify what has been said.Example-Arcs of the circle
14 Group members are assigned a number, The group discusses as one, 4) Numbered Heads:-Group members are assigned a number,The group discusses as one,The instructor calls one number,The person with that number answersfor the group.Example:indices,area,volume of different geimetrical figures .
15 5)Team-pair-solo-:Students do the problem(s)first as a team,then in a pair,solo.examples:circle,indices.
16 6)Circle the sage:The instructor polls the students looking for special knowledge on a certain topic.Those with the knowledge spread out around the room. (They are the sages.)The other students(no two from the same team) circle the sage, take notes on the information they are presenting,and question them.-Then, the group reforms and each explains what they have learned.If there is a disagreement, it is aired as a group with the whole class, and it is resolved there.Examples:ratio and proportion,graphs .
17 7)Send-a-problem-:All groups generate solutions to problems.The problem is clipped to the outside of a folder, and all solutions from that group are written down and placed inside the folder.The folder is passed to a different group who reads the problem but not the solutions.They write their solutions and put them inside the folder.A third group selects the two best solutions and amends them as necessary.Examples: problems based on trigonometry.
18 8)Structured problem solving-: Groups are given a problemto solve within a specified time.All members must agree.All must be able to explain the solution.Examples :Commission,variations ,statistics.
19 (B) Reciprocal teaching: explaining, providing feedback, understanding alternative perspectives1)Jigsaw:For more complex problems, this structure provides students the opportunity to develop expertise in one of many components of a problem .first participating in a group solely focused on a single component.
20 groups are reformed with a representative In the second stage of the exercise,groups are reformed with a representativefrom each expert group who together now have sufficient expertise to tackle the whole problem.Eg: Types of triangles,circle,laws of indices.
21 2)Peer editing: peer editing pairs up students at the idea generation stage ,peers provide feedback throughout the process.For example,each student in the pair describes their topic ,ideas and outlines the structure of their work while their partnerasks questions, and develops an outline based on what is described.Examples: quadrilateral, Area and Volume.
22 MERITS Reinforces listening to others and gives opportunity for immediate feedback and adjustment of thought.Provides opportunities for higher order thinking as opposed to Passive listening.
23 Students talking together provide for input and listening. Students often have to assess the thoughts/ideas of peers, determine whether they “fit” their own, whether they disagree, or partially agree.Students have an opportunity to speak their ideas / thoughts for better formulation. Some often say, “I didn’t think of that” or “That’s a different slant.’’
24 Promotes greater student-faculty and student-student interaction. Students assist each other in understanding material/content.. This may even help students broaden their perspectives on issues or problems.Professors have an opportunity to move from group to group, listen and if appropriate add comments.Problems or misunderstandings can quickly and quietly be handled.
25 promotes trust in others. gains friendships across genders, ethnic and racial boundaries.develops respect for diversity
26 Conclusion Cooperative learning requires an extra effort from traditional learning.It is well-planned.It is a sophisticated instructional strategy.Critical thinking skills are encouraged.Promotes content learning.