11Early computers were expensive and difficult to construct
12The needs of Integrated Circuits After the invention of transistors in 1947 scientist tried to use the transistors in a small Integrated CircuitsIntegrated Circuits were needed because the vacuum tubes were costly, produce a lot of heat, heavy and slowTransistors
13The needs of Integrated Circuits Cont. Scientists decided to figure out a new way to solve this problem with vacuum tubes- and start to produce Integrated Circuits which helped them to do the job easilyTransistors are small, fast, reliable and effective, and quickly replaced the vacuum tubeVacuum Tube
14Different kind of Microprocessor Speaking of computers, the most important thing we have to discuss is the astonishing improvement of Microprocessors in the last 30 yearsThe first Microprocessors included transistors, produced by Intel in The name of that processor was “Intel 4004”In 1974 Intel produced “Intel 8080”, this chip included 4800 transistorsIntel 4004Intel 8080
15Different kind of Microprocessor Cont. In 1976 a new company called Zilog produced “Zilog Z80”. This chip contained 8500 transistorsIn 1985 Intel again produced new microprocessors; these were called “Intel 386DX”. These processors contained 275 thousand transistorsZilog Z80Intel 386DX
16Different kind of Microprocessor Cont. In 1993 Intel produced the first version of Pentium - the speed of this chip was fast!; they also improved the functionality in this generation of processors. The use of this processor was for the personal use and contained 3.1 million transistorsTwo months ago (June 24), 2004 Intel produced the most powerful Microprocessor called Celeron, which contains 80 million transistors and has a clock speed of 2.8 GHz.Celeron
17Why are the processors getting bigger in size? Microprocessor are getting bigger from one version to another because scientists need to put more and more transistors in the processor.In the earliest versions they didn’t include different component in the microprocessor, such as ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) and Registers. They were separated from the actual processor
18Why it contained more transistors?? As we know, transistors are switches which can be turn on and off. That’s how computers work. If we increase the number of transistors we actually increase the number of operations and the number of the on and off’s that take place when the microprocessor work.Each newest version of microprocessor included more functionality from the earliest one.
19As we can see, different companies tried to produce different kind of microprocessors and tried to improve their products; most of these companies went bankrupt - others still until this day produce different kind of chips such as Intel, AMD, IBM, Motorola, HP and Hitachi.
22DNA ComputersOne pound of DNA has the capacity to store more information than all the electronic computers ever builtMore than 10-trillion DNA molecules can fit into an area no larger than 1 cubic centimeterComputer would be able to hold 10 terabytes of data and perform 10-trillion calculations at a timeUnlike conventional computers, DNA computers could perform calculations simultaneouslyConventional computers operate linearly, taking on tasks one at a time. But parallel computing that will allow DNA to solve complex mathematical problems in hours -- problems that might take electrical computers hundreds of years to complete
23ConclusionAs we can see, computers are getting better and better every year. But the question is - if computers aren’t used in the proper way, what’s going to happen ….. ?