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History of the Micro-Computer. Group Question Get into a pair of two. You have three minutes to come up with two answers and make an educated guess at.

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Presentation on theme: "History of the Micro-Computer. Group Question Get into a pair of two. You have three minutes to come up with two answers and make an educated guess at."— Presentation transcript:

1 History of the Micro-Computer

2 Group Question Get into a pair of two. You have three minutes to come up with two answers and make an educated guess at a third.

3 Discussion Questions What is a computer?  What is the simplest definition of a computer that you can come up with?  What defines a modern computer?  What was the first computer? If you don’t know, make a guess

4 Definition of a Computer  It must be able to Process Information  Have the capability of Input and Output  Manipulate Numbers like a Calculator

5 Definition of a Modern Computer  It has the capability of Inputs, outputs, processes and stores information  It has Physical aspects such as a Keyboard, Mouse, and a Monitor, etc. – are these necessary components?

6 What was the very first Computer?

7 The Very First Computer was Man

8 The First Man Aided Tool Used as a Computer  beads on rods to count and calculate  still widely used in Asia!

9 Slide Rule 1630 based on Napier’s rules for logarithms used until 1970s The Second Man Aided Tool Used as a Computer

10 What Period of Time Lead to the Invention of the Micro-Computer  The Renaissance  The Industrial Revolution  The Romanticism  Baby Boomer

11 What Period of Time Lead to the Invention of the Micro-Computer  The Renaissance  The Industrial Revolution  The Romanticism  Baby Boomer

12 Machined Computers - 19th Century  It was the first computer to store data and used metal cards  It was the first computer Manufactured  still in use today!

13 Charles Babbage  Difference Engine c.1822  huge calculator, never finished  Analytical Engine 1833 Augusta Ada Byron  Took Babbage’s idea and completed it.  It calculated in “mills” and used metal punch cards for instructions  It was powered by steam!  It had an accurate up to six decimal places

14 Break Discussion!!! ActiveIn-Active

15 Discussion Question What was the biggest advance that led to modern computers?  Electricity  Transistor  Vacuum Tubes  Microchip  Data storage

16 Vacuum Tubes  First Generation Electronic Computers Part used Vacuum Tubes  Vacuum tubes are glass tubes with circuits inside.  Vacuum tubes have no air inside of them, which protects the circuitry.

17 UNIVAC  First fully electronic digital computer built in the U.S.  Created at the University of Pennsylvania  ENIAC weighed 30 tons  contained 18,000 vacuum tubes  Cost a paltry $487,000

18 Grace Hopper  Programmed UNIVAC  Recipient of Computer Science’s first “Man of the Year Award”

19 First Computer Bug  Relay switches part of computers  Grace Hopper found a moth stuck in a relay responsible for a malfunction  Called it “debugging” a computer

20 Second Generation –  1956 – Computers began to incorporate Transistors  Replaced vacuum tubes with Transistors

21 Break Discussion!!! ActiveIn-Active

22 Integrated Circuits Third Generation Computers used Integrated Circuits (chips). Integrated Circuits consist of transistors, resistors, and capacitors integrated together into a single “chip”

23 The First Microprocessor – 1971  The 4004 had 2,250 transistors  four-bit chunks (four 1’s or 0’s)  108Khz  Called “Microchip”

24 What is a Microchip?  Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSIC)  Transistors, resistors, and capacitors  4004 had 2,250 transistors  Pentium IV has 42 MILLION transistors  Each transistor 0.13 microns (10 -6 meters)

25 4 th Generation – 1971-present  MICROCHIPS!  Getting smaller and smaller, but we are still using microchip technology

26 Birth of Personal Computers  256 byte memory (not Kilobytes or Megabytes)  2 MHz Intel 8080 chips  Just a box with flashing lights  cost $395 kit, $495 assembled.

27 Over the past 50 years, the Electronic Computer has evolved rapidly. Connections:  Which evolved from something else, which was an entirely new creation?  vacuum tube  integrated circuit  transistor  microchip

28 Over the past 50 years, the Electronic Computer has evolved rapidly. Connections:  Which evolved from the other, which was an entirely new creation  vacuum tube – Newly created  integrated circuit – Evolved from the Transistor  Transistor – Newly created  Microchip – Evolved from the Transistor and the Integrated circuit.

29 Early Microcomputer

30 Apple Computers  Founded 1977  Apple II released 1977  widely used in schools  Macintosh (left)  released in 1984, Motorola Microchip processor  first commercial computer with graphical user interface (GUI) and pointing device (mouse)

31 IBM PC  IBM-Intel-Microsoft joint venture  First wide-selling personal computer used in business  8088 Microchip - 29,000 transistors  4.77 Mhz processing speed  256 K RAM (Random Access Memory) standard  One or two floppy disk drives

32 21 st Century Computing  Great increases in speed, storage, and memory  Increased networking, speed in Internet  Terabyte (Trillion) / Pegabyte (Zillion)  Widespread use of CD-RW/DVD/Blue Ray  PDAs  Cell – Smart Phones  Tablets  WIRELESS!!!  Bluetooth Technology  Hologram Technology

33 What’s next for computers? Use your imagination to come up with what the next century holds for computers.  What can we expect in five years?  What can we expect in twenty years?


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