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Chapter 4: Components of a Computer System. The System Unit What is a computer system unit? p. 134 Fig. 4-1 Next Basically, the case that contains electronic.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4: Components of a Computer System. The System Unit What is a computer system unit? p. 134 Fig. 4-1 Next Basically, the case that contains electronic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4: Components of a Computer System

2 The System Unit What is a computer system unit? p. 134 Fig. 4-1 Next Basically, the case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data

3 The System Unit What are common components inside the system unit? p. 135 Fig. 4-2 Next Memory Adapter cards Sound card Video card Ports Drive bays Power supply power supply ports drive bays processor memory sound card video card Processor

4 The System Unit What is the motherboard? p. 136 Fig. 4-3 Next Main circuit board in system unit Contains adapter cards, processor chips, and memory modules Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Motherboards below Chapter 4

5 The System Unit What is a chip? p. 136 Next Small piece of semi-conducting material on which integrated circuits are etched Integrated circuits contain many microscopic pathways capable of carrying electrical current Chips are packaged so they can be attached to a circuit board Vacuum tubes | Transistors | Chips | Superchips

6 Processor Control Unit Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Processor What is the central processing unit (CPU)? p. 137 Fig. 4-4 Next Input Devices Storage Devices Output Devices Interprets and carries out basic instructions that operate a computer Memory DataInformation Instructions Data Information Control Unit Control unit directs and coordinates operations in computer Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic, comparison, and logical operations Also called the processor The brains of the computer

7 Processor What is the system clock? p. 138 Next Pace of system clock is clock speed Most clock speeds are in the gigahertz (GHz) range (1 GHz = one billion ticks of system clock per second) Controls timing of all computer operations Generates regular electronic pulses, or ticks, that set operating pace of components of system unit Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Clock Speed below Chapter 4

8 Processor Which processor should you select? p. 139 Next The faster the processor, the more expensive the computer Celeron Itanium or Xeon Pentium family 1.3 GHz and up 3.0 GHz and up 2.4 GHz to 3.0 GHz Up to 2.4 GHz 2.2 GHz and up Intel ProcessorDesired Clock Speed

9 Data Representation How do computers represent data? p. 140 Fig. 4-6 Next Recognize only two discrete states: on or off Use a binary system to recognize two states Use Number system with two unique digits: 0 and 1, called bits (short for binary digits) Most computers are digital

10 Data Representation What is a byte? p. 140 Fig. 4-7 Next Eight bits grouped together as a unit Provides enough different combinations of 0s and 1s to represent 256 individual characters Numbers Uppercase and lowercase letters Punctuation marks

11 Data Representation How is a letter converted to binary form and back? p. 141 Fig. 4-9 Next Step 1. The user presses the capital letter D (shift+D key) on the keyboard. Step 2. An electronic signal for the capital letter D is sent to the system unit. Step 3. The signal for the capital letter D is converted to its ASCII binary code ( ) and is stored in memory for processing. Step 4. After processing, the binary code for the capital letter D is converted to an image, and displayed on the output device.

12 Memory What is memory? p. 142 Fig Next Electronic components that store instructions, data, and results Consists of one or more chips on motherboard or other circuit board Each byte stored in unique location called an address, similar to seats in a concert hall

13 Memory How is memory measured? p. 142 Fig Next TermAbbreviationApproximate Size KilobyteKB or K1 thousand bytes MegabyteMB1 million bytes GigabyteGB1 billion bytes TerabyteTB1 trillion bytes By number of bytes available for storage


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