FIRST GENERATION OF COMPUTER (1942-1955) o ENIAC o UNIVAC Main drawback: First generation computer were made using vacuum tube Their size was very large They used machine level language or low level language. Speed of instruction-execution was very slow They generated lot of heat Switching through vacuum tubes was not reliable Haevy air conditioning was required Only scientists and engineers were able to use these computers and that too in limited areas due to their high cost They needed a constant maintenance, which was very expensive.
AFTER 1940 There are five generation of computer after 1940, i.e: First Generation Computer (1942-1955) Second Generation computer (1955-1964) Third Generation Computer (1964-1975) Fourth Generation Computer (1975 Onwards) Fifth Generation Computer
ENIAC E lectronic N umerical I ntegrator A nd C alculator
SECOND GENERATION COMPUTER (1955-1964) IBM series UNIVAC III CDC 1400 series Honeywell Characteristic Second generation computer made use of transistor Transistor was invited as a smaller than the smallest vacuum tube, less expensive, and more reliable. It consumed very little power and produce much less heat It performed all the functions of a vacuum tube The high level language FORTRAN was also developed. This development brought the computers very close to man and made it a very popular machine
THIRD GENERATION COMPUTER (1964-1975) IBM 360 series 370 series UNIVAC HOG 9000 series Characteristic The computers that were designed with the use of integrated circuits. It was micro electronic technology These computers had better storage devices and improved input/output devices that enhanced the capabilities of these computer and made multiprogramming possible, in which a number of programs could be executed simultaneouslu by a single processor The technology that was used in the form of Integrated Circuit (IC) was known as Small-Scale Intergration (SSI) that contained about 10 to 20 transistor on it. These computer were 10.000 times faster Arithmetic and logical operation could be performed in nano second. This computer used operating system It was able to do communication with another computer
FOURTH GENERATION COMPUTER (1975 ONWARDS) The development of microprocessor chip that contains entire central processing unit (CPU) on a single silicon chip led to the invention IC in third generation was known as SSI that contained about 10 to 20 transistor. Later, MSI that possible to assemble up to 100 resistors on a single chip was developed. After that, LSI that possible to integrate 30.000 transistor on a single chip came, and now the ear of VLSI (fourth generation computer) has come, in which millions of transistor can be assembled on single chip. The size of computer become very small. It make this generation can be called microcomputer generation. The I/O devices are quite advanced. These devices are optical reader. This generation’s computer are compact, faster and more reliable
FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTER The fifth generation computers will have thinking power and capability to make decisions like human beings. Though these computers are faster, more accurate, reliable, smaller in size and very cheap. They will be more usefull in the field of knowledge processing than in data processing. The concept of Artificial Intelegent (AI) is being used in these computers. These computer will have Knowledge Information Processing System (KIPS) rather than the present Date/Logic Information Processing System.
SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT Beginner Stabil Micro Modern
BEGINNER Software in this eras, only the connection between the inside of cable in computer. In this era, software is an integral part of the hardware.
MICRO The software can be divided into system software responsible for handling internal and application software that is used directly by the user for a specific purpose.
STABIL In this era, software began to know database system, which separates the program (processing) with data (which is in the process).
MODERN Now the software is not only on a supercomputer with 25 processors, a mobile computer has also been equipped with software that can synchronize with a PC.