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Safety Initiatives Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST)

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Presentation on theme: "Safety Initiatives Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Safety Initiatives Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST)
John Hickey, Director Aircraft Certification Service, AIR-1

2 Agenda Status and Progress to Date Background
Runway Incursions Current Annual Safety Plan Business Model International Collaboration Outreach Efforts Prioritized Safety Research CAST Future Direction

3 In the U.S., our focus was set by the White House Commission on Aviation Safety
1.1 Government and industry should establish a national goal to reduce the aviation fatal accident rate by a factor of five within ten years and conduct safety research to support that goal 1.2 The FAA should develop standards for continuous safety improvement, and should target its regulatory resources based on performance against those standards 2

4 The National Civil Aviation Review Commission (NCARC) on Aviation Safety Provided Additional Direction FAA and the aviation industry must develop a strategic plan to improve safety, with specific priorities based on objective, quantitative analysis of safety information and data Government should expand on their programs to improve aviation safety in other parts of the world 3

5 Industry Government Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST)
AIA Airbus ALPA APA ATA NACA Boeing P&W* RAA FSF IATA AAPA ATAC APFA DOD FAA Aircraft Certification Flight Standards System Safety Air Traffic Operations Research NASA ICAO JAA TCC NATCA Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) *Representing GE and RR 20th Annual JAA/FAA International Conference 5

6 CAST Goals Reduce the U.S. commercial aviation fatal accident rate by 80% by 2007 Work together with airlines, JAA, ICAO, IATA, FSF, IFALPA, other international organizations and appropriate regulatory/ government authorities to reduce worldwide commercial aviation fatal accident rate

7 Joint Implementation Measurement Data Analysis Team (JIMDAT)
Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) CAST Joint Safety Analysis Teams (JSAT) Data analyses Joint Safety Implementation Teams (JSIT) Safety enhancement development Master safety plan Enhancement effectiveness Future areas of study Joint Implementation Measurement Data Analysis Team (JIMDAT) 20th Annual JAA/FAA International Conference 7

8 Excluding all security events
20th Annual JAA/FAA International Conference 8

9 Integrated Strategic Safety Plan
Contains 46 safety enhancements optimized to include those actions with the best effectiveness vs. resource relationships 21 complete/25 committed and underway Initially combines short-term “liveware”-based enhancements with transition to design change enhancements long term Foundation for U.S-driven continuous improvements in worldwide aviation safety

10 Runway Incursions Identified as an important contributor to risk in the initial Safer Skies agenda CAST chartered analysis (JSAT) and implementation (JSIT) teams to study Runway Incursions and develop Safety Enhancements to address them 10 of the 46 Safety Enhancements on the Integrated Strategic Safety Plan relate to Runway Incursions 2 of the 10 R&D Projects and Studies relate to Runway Incursions

11 Completed Safety Enhancements
Terrain avoidance warning system (TAWS) CFIT Standard Operating Procedures Precision approach implementation (PAI) Vertical Angles – Increase constant angle approaches Minimum Safe Altitude Warning (MSAW) Systems Proactive Safety Programs (FOQA + ASAP) CFIT Crew Resource Management (CRM) training CFIT Prevention training Air Traffic Controller CFIT training PAI-VGSI at runway ends PAI-DME at airports RI SOPs – Ground Operations (General Aviation) RI SOPs - Tow tug operators

12 Completed Safety Enhancements (cont’d)
Safety Culture Industry will include essential safety information in the appropriate airline manuals (i.e., training programs) FAA inspectors will utilize the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) database CEO and Director of Safety (DOS) more visible Maintenance Procedures FAA published guidance on: Servicing landing struts Surveillance of maintenance subcontractors Minimum Equipment List (MEL) (covers recurring maintenance events) Air Carriers’ Directors of Safety completed internal surveys to verify guidance was being followed ALAR Flight crew training Uncontained Engine Failures FAA issued Airworthiness Directives requiring the Inspection of High-Energy Rotating Parts 20th Annual JAA/FAA International Conference 12

13 Committed Plan Elements
Policies and Procedures Industry will develop/implement Risk Management tools Industry will develop a process to inform personnel/flight crew of critical safety information Industry will develop a process to enhance flight crew proficiency FAA/Industry will develop standard operating procedures for loss of control related accidents Aircraft Design FAA will issue guidance on Continuing Airworthiness FAA will issue guidance on Critical System Maintenance FAA will amend guidance to include recommendations surrounding autoflight designs for new type designs Manufacturers will implement Flight Deck Equipment Upgrades for new type designs (i.e. interactive checklists) FAA/JAA will amend guidance to include recommendations regarding Displays and Alerting Systems for new designs Manufacturers agree to install Vertical Situation Displays in new aircraft FAA/JAA will issue amended icing certification criteria for criteria for new airplane designs not equipped with evaporative systems Manufacturers agree to install Flight Envelope Protection in new type designs 20th Annual JAA/FAA International Conference

14 Committed Plan Elements (cont.)
Flight Crew Training Advanced Maneuvers Training will be provided by all operators Industry will incorporate a human factors-related training guide into training programs and SOPs Precision approach implementation (PAI) FAA and Industry will develop: Recommended procedures, displays and training that will enable pilots of commercial aircraft to fly a stabilized vertical path to the runway for all instrument approaches Criteria and guidance for reduced landing minima Laterally and vertical guided approach paths to runway ends not served by Instrument Landing System (ILS) 20th Annual JAA/FAA International Conference

15 Committed Plan Elements (cont.)
Runway Incursions - Enhanced airport surveillance equipment Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Ground operations (Commercial Aviation) Vehicle operators ATC Clearance readback requirements Training – Pilots Enhanced Tower Controller training CRM

16 Resource Cost vs. Risk Reduction
80% 10000 APPROVED PLAN Risk Reduction 9000 70% Total Cost in $ (Millions) 8000 60% 7000 50% 6000 Risk Eliminated by Safety Enhancements 40% Resource Cost ($ Millions) 5000 2007 2020 4000 30% 3000 20% 2000 10% 1000 0% Completed Completed + Plan (2007 Implementation Level) Completed + Plan (2020 Implementation Level) All JSIT Proposed Enhancements (2020 Implementation Level) CAST-050

17 Safety Plan Benefits Prediction of a 64% risk reduction that also results in approximately $540 million annual savings to the industry Current accident cost per flight is approximately $90 cycle Implementation of the 46 selected safety enhancements reduces this cost by $58 per flight cycle Safety is good for business

18 Part 121 Aviation Industry Cost Due to Fatal/Hull Loss Accidents
100 Historic cost of accidents/flt. cyc 80 Savings ~ $58/Flt. Cyc Or ~ $540 Million Dollars/Yr. Dollars/Flt. Cyc 60 64 % Risk reduction 40 20 Cost of Accident fatalities following implementation of the CAST 2007 levels 2002 2007

19 Hull Loss & Fatal Accidents
Portion of Total Fatality Risk Mitigated by the CAST Plan (2007 Implementation Values) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Total LOC Flt CFIT Fire/Explosion Runway Collision LOC GND Midair Crew Inc Eng-UCEF Sys-Comp Turbulence Evac Portion of Risk Risk Eliminated Risk Remaining CAST Fatal/Hull Loss Dataset – Security events excluded. 20th Annual JAA/FAA International Conference

20 Safety Metrics Purpose: Measure to determine if program is resulting in desired risk reduction. Identify issues needing more detailed analysis if desired result is not occurring Assumption: Measurement of accident rate is not effective means of identifying program success Concentrate on using reporting systems currently in existence (ex: FOQA, Partnership programs, SDR, NAOMS, etc.) Direct link is through the problem statements identified by data analysis Identify events that reflect the problem Identify available method for measuring the event frequency Establish event baseline Identify trend

21 Safety Metrics Examples
Safety Enhancement Indicator 1. Terrain Avoidance Warning System (TAWS) Reduction in MSAW alerts Reduction in valid GPWS alerts (CFIT) 4. CFIT PAI-Vertical Angles (7-11,18) Percentage of operators who have adopted constant angle approaches Continuous reduction in selected metrics 21. ALAR Flight Deck Equipment Upgrades – New Type Designs (1-3) Reduction in number of inadvertent descents below decision height 23. ALAR Flight Crew Training – one project Continuous reduction in the number of busted approach gates Continuous reduction in altitude busts 27. LOC Policies and Procedures – Risk Assessments and Management – one project Percentage of operators/manufacturers with risk assessment/management processes in place Continuous reduction in the number of operations with recurring intermittent failures in flight critical systems Percentage of operators with a process to include safety information in manuals 20th Annual JAA/FAA International Conference

22 CAST Driven International Safety Activities
ICAO COSCAP (Cooperative Development of Operational Safety and Continuing Airworthiness) Europe JSSI: Joint Safety Strategy Initiative Central and South America PAAST: Pan American Aviation Safety Team East Africa African Airlines Safety Council, AFRASCO West Africa Flight Safety Foundation Asia/Pacific Association of Asia Pacific Airlines

23 CAST Future Direction Execute the CAST approved Safety Plan
Measure Plan effectiveness and modify Plan based on metrics and results Continue the development of a proactive incident-based risk mitigation methodology Improve the CAST process Expand CAST influence on worldwide safety programs Integrate safety program with R & D initiatives Catalog the many ongoing safety initiatives that dilute limited resources and identify opportunities for program integration and efficiency improvements

24 Prioritized R&D and Study Recommendations
Captured all R&D and study recommendations from all JSAT/JSIT activity Consolidated and grouped like products Tested all against CAST Dataset for effectiveness Recommending those that perform well against dataset

25 Conclusions CAST has an effective data driven process
CAST has become the model for Industry/Government consensus building on safety CAST brings together all the key players – Air Carriers – Manufacturers – Employee Groups – Government Predicted 64% risk reduction Industry is voluntarily implementing CAST recommendations World-wide leadership Need your support to shape the future

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