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MIDDLE MATTERS Language/Literacy Support: Supportive Pedagogic Discourse Routines Francine Falk-Ross, Northern Illinois University Institute.

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Presentation on theme: "MIDDLE MATTERS Language/Literacy Support: Supportive Pedagogic Discourse Routines Francine Falk-Ross, Northern Illinois University Institute."— Presentation transcript:

1 MIDDLE MATTERS Language/Literacy Support: Supportive Pedagogic Discourse Routines Francine Falk-Ross, Northern Illinois University Institute Presentation for International Reading Association May 13, 2007 Toronto, Canada Handouts Online at: annual_program.htm annual_program.htm

2 F. Falk-Ross, IRA 07, Middle Matters FRAMEWORKS FOR CONSIDERATION Expanded forms of instructional interaction and routines in the form of collaboration between teachers, students, & peers are key to learning and conceptual change (Almasi, 1994; Falk-Ross, 2002). Collaborative conversations encourage personal connections with content material and build literacy achievement (Nystrand, et al, 1997). All students, including those who are marginalized by language difficulties (Risko & Kinzer, 1998) and /or by language differences (Heath, 1983), can benefit from language expansions. To support students learning, teacher need to think of reading as situated language (Gee, 2001).

3 F. Falk-Ross, IRA 07, Middle Matters Suggestions for Expanding Language Routines Interactive Opportunities: Provide ample time for student-initiated questions, comments, and discussion within all classroom activities. Provide ample time for student-initiated questions, comments, and discussion within all classroom activities. Question Uptake (Collins, 1982) : Pose questions that do not have pre-specified answers but, instead, depend on the responses that precede them. Allow students observations to create changes in the discussion in substantive ways. Pose questions that do not have pre-specified answers but, instead, depend on the responses that precede them. Allow students observations to create changes in the discussion in substantive ways. Dialogic Conversations: Encourage students to interact with the text and the ongoing responses of their peers and teachers comments, I.e., connect language contributions to previous discussions and continuing constructions. Encourage students to interact with the text and the ongoing responses of their peers and teachers comments, I.e., connect language contributions to previous discussions and continuing constructions.

4 F. Falk-Ross, IRA 07, Middle Matters Suggestions for Expanding Language Routines Individual Language Exchanges: Use individual conferencing and interactive journaling to model and develop learning within students zone of proximal development. Use individual conferencing and interactive journaling to model and develop learning within students zone of proximal development. High Level Evaluation (Mishler, 1978; Nystrand, Gamoran, Kachur, & Prendegast, 1997) Elicit responses that involve analysis of material, synthesis of ideas, and personal connections with text through language. Elicit responses that involve analysis of material, synthesis of ideas, and personal connections with text through language.

5 F. Falk-Ross, IRA 07, Middle Matters Suggestions for Expanding Language Routines Scaffolded Instruction (Wilkinson & Silliman, 2000): Use reciprocal teaching methods to guide students through development of new strategies toward independent learning. Use reciprocal teaching methods to guide students through development of new strategies toward independent learning. Negotiated Meanings (Wells, 1999) : Respond with observations and added information rather than objective evaluation, I.e., use language that is collaborative to reach shared understandings of concepts and vocabulary. Respond with observations and added information rather than objective evaluation, I.e., use language that is collaborative to reach shared understandings of concepts and vocabulary. Authentic Questions: Ask for the students interpretation of a concept rather than the listed or given definition from workbooks or guides. Ask for the students interpretation of a concept rather than the listed or given definition from workbooks or guides.

6 F. Falk-Ross, IRA 07, Middle Matters SCIENCE/MATH TALK Vocabulary Definitions In your own words, how would you describe the meaning of the term chlorophyll ? What else do you know about that term? How do you know that? Would someone else please add more information. So, lets sum up. We agree that the term refers to……(negotiated meaning, uptake). In your own words, how would you describe the meaning of the term chlorophyll ? What else do you know about that term? How do you know that? Would someone else please add more information. So, lets sum up. We agree that the term refers to……(negotiated meaning, uptake). Problem-solving and Decision-making What steps did you follow to determine that result? How else could you have come to that decision? What information that you knew before helped lead you through that thinking process? (higher level responses, personal analysis). What steps did you follow to determine that result? How else could you have come to that decision? What information that you knew before helped lead you through that thinking process? (higher level responses, personal analysis).

7 F. Falk-Ross, IRA 07, Middle Matters READING/LANGUAGE ARTS TALK Word Identification/Language Arts We know to use context to help us figure out words that are long or difficult. Tell us what phrases or sentences before or after this word help you to identify it? (scaffolding). We know to use context to help us figure out words that are long or difficult. Tell us what phrases or sentences before or after this word help you to identify it? (scaffolding). What rules of language use do you observe in that word/sentence? When have you used that language form in your own conversations? (higher level response, connections). What rules of language use do you observe in that word/sentence? When have you used that language form in your own conversations? (higher level response, connections).Comprehension What do you think the author was trying to tell us in that passage? What information in the text supports/substantiates your answer? Anyone else have an idea to add to that response? (question uptake, negotiated meaning, higher level response). What do you think the author was trying to tell us in that passage? What information in the text supports/substantiates your answer? Anyone else have an idea to add to that response? (question uptake, negotiated meaning, higher level response).

8 F. Falk-Ross, IRA 07, Middle Matters SOCIAL STUDIES TALK Comprehension Describe the events that lead to that historical occurrence? What do you think were the motivations of the people involved in the outcome? How can we connect that topic to our own experiences? Who agrees or wants to add to that answer ?(question uptake, negotiated meaning, higher level response). Describe the events that lead to that historical occurrence? What do you think were the motivations of the people involved in the outcome? How can we connect that topic to our own experiences? Who agrees or wants to add to that answer ?(question uptake, negotiated meaning, higher level response). Remember that the Native Americans had lived on this land for many years and spoke another language than the colonists. What were the results of the westward movement as you they were described in our reading? What other events in history can you compare that to? (scaffolding, connections). Remember that the Native Americans had lived on this land for many years and spoke another language than the colonists. What were the results of the westward movement as you they were described in our reading? What other events in history can you compare that to? (scaffolding, connections).

9 F. Falk-Ross, IRA 07, Middle Matters FINE ARTS CONVERSATION Details/Vocabulary Tell me about the elements in the created material (art or music) that you recognize as characteristic of that genre? What are some other examples that you compare this piece to from your experiences? What terms are used to represent the style ?(experiential connections, extended response). Tell me about the elements in the created material (art or music) that you recognize as characteristic of that genre? What are some other examples that you compare this piece to from your experiences? What terms are used to represent the style ?(experiential connections, extended response).Comprehension What have you learned about the creators of this genre from your reading? What experiences did they bring to the development of this music/art? How did this help them in their creative work? (personal analysis, question uptake, critical observation). What have you learned about the creators of this genre from your reading? What experiences did they bring to the development of this music/art? How did this help them in their creative work? (personal analysis, question uptake, critical observation).

10 F. Falk-Ross, IRA 07, Middle Matters Before Reading Strategies Anticipation Guides (Head and Readance, 1986) Builds: activation of prior Builds: activation of prior knowledge, prediction, and debate Elements: Elements: Teachers create statements related to concepts (facts for expository text or themes for narrative text) Students discuss their agreement or disagreement with the statement Students constructively defend their positions Review follows-up the reading for review and reconsideration

11 F. Falk-Ross, IRA 07, Middle Matters During Reading Strategies Vocabulary Self-Selection (Ruddell, 1992) Builds: self-monitoring & active reading Builds: self-monitoring & active reading Elements: Elements: Each student chooses 1-3 words for a class list. Teacher chooses 1-3 words, as well. Context and meaning are explained to the class. Use after reading portions of the text. Words are recorded in a personal word bank. Inquiry Circles (Temple, Martinez, Yokota, & Naylor, 1998) Builds: problem-solving & active learning Builds: problem-solving & active learning Elements: Elements: Students are organized into small groups of mixed ability students Open questions (literal, inferential, critical) are written for students responses. Peer interaction provides negotiation of meaning and language enrichment. Application of experiential knowledge.

12 F. Falk-Ross, IRA 07, Middle Matters After Reading Strategies Making Connections (Keene & Zimmerman, 1997) Builds: ownership of information Builds: ownership of information & comprehension Elements: Elements: Comparisons - text to text Reflections - text to self Critical review – text to world

13 F. Falk-Ross, IRA 07, Middle Matters References Almasi, (1994). The nature of fourth graders sociocognitive conflicts in peer-led and teacher-led discussions of literature. Reading Research Quarterly, 29 (4), Atwell, N. (1998). In the middle: New understandings about writing, reading, and learning (2nd ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Boyton/Cook Publishers, Inc. Carroll, P. S. (2004). Integrated literacy instruction in the middle grades: Channeling young adolescents spontaneous overflow of energy. Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. Falk-Ross, F. C. (2002). Classroom-based language and literacy intervention: A case studies approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon Pearson. Gee, J. (2001). Reading as situated language: A sociocognitive perspective. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 44 (8), Head, M. H., & Readance, J. E. (1986). Anticipation guides: Meaning through prediction. In E. K. Kishner, T. W. Bean, J. E. Readance, & D. W. Moore (Eds.), Reading in the content areas (2 nd ed.) (pp ). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt. Heath, S. B. (1983). Ways with words: Language, life, and work in communities and classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. National Middle School Association. (2003). This we believe: Developmentally responsive middle level schools. Westerville, OH: Author. Nystrand, M., Gamaron, A., Kachur, R., & Prendegast, C. (1997). Opening dialogue: Understanding the dynamics of language and learning in the English classroom. New York: Teachers College Press. Ruddell, M. R. (1992). Integrated content and long-term vocabulary learning with the vocabulary self- collection strategy. In E. K. Kishner, T. W. Bean, J. E. Readance, & D. W. Moore (Eds.), Reading in the content areas (3 rd ed.) (pp ). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt. Wells, G. (1999). Dialogic inquiry: Towards a sociological practice and theory of education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wilkinson, E.R., & Silliman, L.C. (2000). Classroom language and literacy learning. In M. Kamil, P.D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research: Volume III (pp ). Mahweh, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


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