Presentation on theme: "Content-Rich Comprehension Instruction"— Presentation transcript:
1Content-Rich Comprehension Instruction Nell K. DukeMichigan State UniversityLiteracy Achievement Research CenterIRA Reading Research 2007
2Plan for Talk Why Content-Rich Comprehension Instruction? Why a Talk on Content-Rich Comprehension Instruction?Recommendations for Providing Content-Rich Comprehension Instruction
3Why Content-Rich Comprehension Instruction? Helps provide a reason for comprehending (i.e., to learn content)Gives readers something to comprehendBuilds world knowledgewhich is good for reading comprehension (e.g., Wilson & Anderson, 1986)which is just goodIs found in more effective schools and teachers (Pressley, et al.; Knapp, et al., 1995)Has proven to be effective as tested in some models (see later slides)
4Why a Talk on Content-Rich Comprehension Instruction? Comprehension instruction, at least in the elementary years, is dominated by narrative text (which can be content-rich, but often is not).Even with informational texts, comprehension instruction is sometimes conducted with content-weak texts.Even content-rich texts are not necessarily treated as such in instruction.Comprehension instruction is often disembedded from rich context (including content).E.g., isolated strategy instructionE.g., conventions notebooks
5Recommendations for Providing Content-Rich Comprehension Instruction Use content-rich textsNote that content-rich texts come in many genres,Note that content-rich texts come in easy-to-read-fluently formsNote that graphics can be part of the contentUse content-rich contextsauthenticityworld knowledgeUse content-focused comprehension instruction approachese.g., CORIe.g., IDEAS Modele.g., Questioning the Author
6Recommendations for Providing Content-Rich Comprehension Instruction Be concerned with content in writing tooe.g., PABILBe concerned with the content of the instruction itselfthe comprehension strategiesthe vocabulary strategiesthe textual knowledge, including graphicsthe enabling skillsTailor the content of the instruction to the learner and learnersbased on informed observationbased on assessment toolsbased on learner response
7Use Content-Rich Texts Does it make children think?Are there big ideas or themes?Is there plenty of detail?Can children learn something new from it?Does it raise new questions?Does it make you want to learn more?Remember. . .content-rich texts come in many genrescontent-rich texts come in easy-to-read-fluently formsgraphics can be part of the contentwhat you do with the texts is part of the content too. . .
8Use Content-Rich Contexts: Authenticity Authentic literacy events are those that replicate or reflect reading and writing purposes and texts, specific to the genre, that occur in the world outside of a schooling context.Authentic reading of informational text involves reading for the purpose of obtaining information about the natural or social world that you want or need to know.Authentic writing of informational text involves communicating information about the natural or social world to people who want or need to know it.(Duke, Purcell-Gates, Hall, & Tower, 2006/2007)
9Some set-ups for authentic reading of informational text in science Discrepant events to generate questionsE.g., prisms on the overheadDemonstrations of phenomena to generate questionsE.g., volcano, caterpillarsSerendipitous events brought from world outsideE.g., broken armAnnouncing topic and asking for questionsE.g., K-W-L charts (topic: sound)(Duke, Purcell-Gates, Hall, & Tower, 2006/2007)
10Some set-ups for authentic reading and writing in science Literacy in response to a community needE.g., pond brochureLiteracy as part of problem-solvingE.g.. dying tadpoles(Audience is integral to authentic writing -- audiences include distant readers (e.g., Costa Rican pen pals), within-school audiences, and within-classroom audiences)(Duke, Purcell-Gates, Hall, & Tower, 2006/2007)
11Support for Authentic Reading and Writing Adults in literacy programs that included more authentic literacy activities:reported reading and writing more out-of-school,reported reading and writing more complex texts, andthe longer students were in these programs, the more this was the case(Purcell-Gates, Degener, Jacobson, & Soler, 2002).Children in second and third grade classrooms that included more authentic literacy activities:showed higher growth in informational and procedural science text reading comprehension and writing for 4 of 7 outcome measures, and in interaction with explicit instruction in informational text features for a 5th outcome measure(Purcell-Gates, Duke, & Martineau, 2007)There is additional less direct research support.
12Use Content-Rich Contexts: World Knowledge Knowledge of the natural world and/orKnowledge of the social worldKnowledge that’s important and/orKnowledge that is interestingKnowledge that has a presence in standards documents orNot!RememberNot to equate knowledge with triviaThat children need to know where knowledge comes fromThat children need to learn to question what is “known”
13Use Content-Focused Comprehension Instruction Approaches: Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI)Replaces an hour of the reading/language arts block with instruction focused on conceptual theme in scienceEngages students in real-world interactions and uses interesting, often student-selected textsFocuses on student goals; includes strategy instruction in the service of conceptual goalsEvaluation focuses on conceptual goals, learning goals, and engagementCORI students in grades 3 and 5 do better on reading assessments than students in regular reading/language arts block, and demonstrate greater engagement.See Motivating Reading Comprehension: Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (Guthrie, Wigfield, & Perecevich, Eds., 2004)
14One Component of CORI: Idea Circles Groups of students meet for in-depth discussion of a text or textsTeacher modeling early in the year, increasingly peer-ledFocus on a concept; read a variety of texts related to that conceptHave a open-ended, self-determined goals clear to all group membersCan be organized in a jigsaw (Aronson, 1978) formatSee Guthrie & McCann, 1996; see also Duke & Bennett-Armistead, 2003.
15Use Content-Focused Comprehension Instruction Approaches: the IDEAS Model Reading/language arts instruction replaced with a two-hour daily block devoted to concept-focused science teaching in areas such as processes that shape the earth, and energy, force, and motionThe IDEAS block includes:Concept mappingHands on activitiesScience processReadingincluding close reading of text excerpts focused on understanding the concepts through identifying main idea and detailsWritingscience journalswriting from concept mapsRomance & Vitale, 2001
16Use Content-Focused Comprehension Instruction Approaches: the IDEAS Model Tested in a series of studies that have included second through fifth graders, including at risk students.Used in middle school settings as well.Resulted in greater improvement on a norm-referenced test of reading achievement than classes that stayed with their normal reading instruction.Students in Science IDEAS classrooms showed more positive attitudes toward reading and more self-confidence as readers.“Again, as in year one, teachers reported that they found the IDEAS model, which naturally encompassed reading and language arts within science instruction, easy to implement in comparison to teaching their regular basal programmes in reading, language arts, and science separately” (p. 379).Romance & Vitale, 2001
17Use Content-Focused Comprehension Instruction Approaches: Questioning the Author Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., Hamilton, R. L., & Kucan, L. (1997). Questioning the author: An approach to enhancing student engagement with text. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. See also Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M.G. (2006), Improving comprehension with Questioning the Author: A fresh and expanded view of a powerful approach. New York: Scholastic.
18Note: The Content Need Not Suffer when Literacy is Included Texts plus hands on activities resulted in greater science learning than hands on activities alone (Anderson & Guthrie, 1999)IDEAS model demonstrates greater science learning as well (Romance & Vitale, 2001)GEMS science kits plus books outperformed GEMs kits alone in science learning (Pearson & Barber, Principal Investigators, seedsofscience.org)Not surprising?Scientists use text extensively in their workMany phenomena are not directly observable or manipulatable by schoolchildren(All this probably applies to social studies as well but I do not know of these kinds of tests of the principle.)
19Be Concerned With Content In Writing Too: The Project-Based Approach to Building Informational Literacy (PABIL)Select a project focus. This could be:A problem your students have noticed;A focus your students identified;A focus you think would be interesting to your students; orA focus that is part of your content area curricula.NOTE: If you choose this last, make sure appropriate hands-on or other disciplinary activities are included.Select a project product (written). This could be:Something you think of in advance;Something you come up with with students; orA combination of both.TIP: Students can provide input on audiences for the product even if not the product itself.Duke, et al., in preparation
20PABIL FrameworkSelect informational literacy knowledge and skills to teach in the context of the project.Comprehension strategies (e.g., applying background knowledge)Informational text features (e.g., diagrams, index)Vocabulary knowledge (e.g., characteristics, products)Vocabulary strategies (e.g., generating images of words)Writing strategies (e.g., webbing)Teach knowledge and skills in the service of PABIL projects with:Read Aloud & Teacher Modeling (15+ minutes)Guided and Independent Experiences (20+ minutes)Reflection Time (10+ minutes)Duke, et al., in preparation
21Example PABIL Project, 2nd Grade Children developed informational booklets about Michigan -- a fascinating, important, amazing place worth knowing about!Children’s focus varied according to their individual interests. Focus topics included: Michigan foods, wildlife, sports, Mackinaw Bridge.Booklets were sent to elementary students in China (who then worked on booklets about their region to share with MI students) and were shared with parents, siblings, and fellow classmates.Students and families celebrated the end of the unit with a Michigan Party complete with food produced in Michigan. Students read and shared their booklets at the celebration. 75% of parents attended the event.
22Example Writing Strategies Lesson Read Aloud & Teacher ModelingTeacher models reading for information and adding information to a webGuided and Independent ExperiencesStudents create a preliminary web on their project topicStudents read for information to add to the webReflectionStudents share their webs and what they learned about their topic
23Example PABIL Project, 2nd Grade Children created posters about microscopic animals, such as head lice and dust mites, including general and public health information about the animal.Different classes wrote for different audiences, such as their school, the local library, a local public health department, and so on.
24Example Informational Text Features Lesson For Microscopic Animals Posters Project:Read Aloud & Teacher ModelingTeacher explains about diagramsTeacher draws a diagram of a microscopic animalTeacher models how to find a diagramGuided and Independent ExperiencesChildren look through books related to project and mark diagrams with sticky notesReflectionChildren share what they learned from the diagrams and about diagramsChildren use checklist of literacy learning goals for unitChildren write a reflection on diagrams
25Be Concerned With The Content of the Instruction Itself The comprehension strategies, perhaps:monitoring and adjusting as neededactivating and applying relevant prior knowledge, including predictionsquestions and questioningattending to and uncovering text structureconstructing visual representations (imaging and graphic organizers)summarizingThe vocabulary strategies, e.g.:contextimagingmorphology (partly strategy, partly knowledge)The textual knowledge, including graphicsgood support for structure instruction (many grades)support for searching instruction (Symons, et al., 2001, 5th grade)other?The enabling skillsword recognitiondecoding (often required in content-rich texts, even for advanced readers)fluency
26Textual Knowledge: The Example of Features of Science Informational Text Appropriate for Second and Third Grade StudentsStructure*Opening statement or general classification (e.g., “Dragonflies are a type of insect.”)General statement or closing (e.g., “There is so much to learn about this amazing insect!”)Description of attributes or components of the subject (e.g., “Dragonflies have six legs and two pair of wings.”)Characteristic events (e.g., “Dragonflies eat flies and other small insects.”)Compare/contrast structures and classifying either within a sentence (e.g., “Dragonflies are a type of insect.”) or across sentences (e.g., “Some dragonflies live in forests near streams. Some dragonflies live in fields near marshes. Some dragonflies live in deserts near pools.”).* Features on this and the following lists are from an analysis of science informational texts appropriate for second and third graders to read themselves (Purcell-Gates, Duke, & Martineau, 2007), unless otherwise noted.
27Textual Knowledge: The Example of Features of Science Informational Text Appropriate for Second and Third Grade StudentsStructure, cont.Other structures such as problem-solution, cause-effect, and so on (Duke & Kays, 1998; Meyer & Rice, 1984)Prelude (a short narrative or comment designed to capture the readers’ attention and draw them into the text, such as an anecdote about a sneeze at the outset of a book about germs) (Pappas, 2006)*Afterword (additional information about the topic in a section at the end of the text) (Pappas, 2006)Addendum (such as excerpts of the journal of a beekeeper in an information book about beekeeping) (Pappas, 2006)Historical vignettes (Pappas, 2006)*Pappas (2006) is an analysis of books appropriate to read to primary grade children.
28Textual Knowledge: The Example of Features of Science Informational Text Appropriate for Second and Third Grade StudentsLanguageFrequent repetition of the topical theme of the text (Duke & Kays, 1998)Timeless verb constructions and generic noun constructions (e.g., “Dragonflies lay eggs.” rather than “Daisy Dragonfly laid her eggs.”)Denotative rather than connotative language (e.g., “Most dragonflies are between one and four inches long.” rather than “Dragonflies are small creatures.”)Specialized or technical vocabulary (e.g., thorax, wingspan, larva)Definitions
29Textual Knowledge: The Example of Features of Science Informational Text Appropriate for Second and Third Grade StudentsNavigational FeaturesIndexHeadingsTable of ContentsGraphical FeaturesRealistic illustrations or photographsLabels and/or captionsGraphical devices such as diagrams, charts, maps, tables, graphs, boldface and italicized vocabulary
30Tailor the Content of the Instruction to the Learner and Learners Based on informed observationrequires knowledge of, among other things, the many different reasons why readers can struggle with comprehensionBased on learner responsehow they respond to instructionwhat they tell you about their comprehensionBased on assessment toolsThink alouds or verbal protocolsCan be used with a variety of textsCan provide insights into what readers are and are not thinking about when they are reading (e.g., level of activity, strategy use, connections)Suitability for young children still being investigatedProcedures, reliability, etc. not entirely established
31Tailor the Content of the Instruction to the Learner and Learners Summaries or retellingsCan provide insights into what children remember and view as important and their structural knowledgeA skill in itselfProcedures, reliability, etc. not establishedInformal reading inventories (passages & questions)Can estimate a child’s comprehension level; some have expository text passagesCan indicate whether children have relatives strengths versus weaknesses in literal versus inferential questionsProcedures established but leveling often questionable and reliability usually not establishedSelf-evaluation checklists (e.g., When I read I. . .)Provide insights into children’s view of their comprehensionDepends on children’s judgmentsValidity and reliability not established
32Tailor the Content of the Instruction to the Learner and Learners Norm-Referenced Tests of ComprehensionUsually do not distinguish informational comprehension from comprehension of other text typesUsually cannot fully separate comprehension from word recognitionDesigned to place students on a normal curveGenerally not very diagnosticProcedures and reliability establishedConcepts of Comprehension Assessment (COCA) and Strategic Cloze Assessment (Cloze)Focus on informational reading comprehension, of texts on life science (COCA) and earth science (Cloze) topicsAddresses five dimensions of knowledge & skill that feed into comprehensionProcedures and reliability established, some validity establishedPredictive and several other forms of validity not yet establishedOthers
33More about the COCAThe COCA is designed for first, second, and maybe third graders.The COCA is individually administered.Assessment sessions run about 15 minutes / child.The text is read aloud with book in front of the child.Questions and prompts are scripted to facilitate consistent administration.Student responses are recorded directly on the score sheet to facilitate scoring.The COCA is designed to measure:Comprehension Strategy Use (CS) (Specifically, activating prior knowledge, predicting, inferring, summarizing)Knowledge of Informational Text Features (TF)Comprehension of Graphics in the Context of Text (GCT)Vocabulary Knowledge of high utility science words (VK)Vocabulary Strategies for rarer words (VS)
34More about the COCA[Sample items from the COCA were shown and read. We expect the COCA to be available for download at msularc.org by the end of Summer, 2007.]
35SummaryThere is both research and theory to support providing content-rich comprehension instruction.However, content-rich comprehension instruction is not consistently provided in U.S. classrooms.In providing content-rich comprehension instruction I recommend that you:Use content-rich textsUse content-rich contextsUse content-focused comprehension instruction approachesBe concerned with content in writing tooBe concerned with the content of the instruction itselfTailor the content of the instruction to the learner and learners