Presentation on theme: "The Roman Republic and Empire Chapter #1 / Section #2"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Roman Republic and Empire Chapter #1 / Section #2
2 Establishing A Republic Read pgAnswer:1. How did Rome begin?2. Who were the ancestors of the Romans?3. What type of government did the Romans set up after they drove out the Etruscans in 509 B.C.?
3 The Laws of the Twelve Tables In 450 B.C. , the Plebeians (common people) won theirfirst breakthrough when the government had the laws ofRome inscribed on twelve tablets and set up in the Forum, ormarketplace.Plebeians had protested that citizens could not know what the laws were, because they were not written down.The Laws of the Twelve Tables made it possible for the first time for plebeians to appeal a judgment by a patrician judge.
6 Continuing ConquestCarthage was a city-state on the northern coast of Africa.Carthage ruled an empire that stretched across North Africa and the western Mediterranean.Rome fought three wars against Carthage which are known as the Punic Wars.In the second Punic War, Hannibal, the Carthaginian general on a destructive rampage through Italy, using war elephants.In the third Punic War, the Romans completely destroyed Carthage, thus becoming masters of the western Mediterranean.The Romans confronted the Hellenistic rulers who divided up Alexander’s empire, and took control of Macedonia, Greece, Asia Minor, making them Roman provinces. By 133 B.C., the empire spanned from Spain to Egypt.
7 Economics and Social Effects Conquests and control of busy trade routes brought incredible riches into Rome.Generals, officials, and traders gained fortunes from loot, taxes and commerce.Slave labors on huge Roman estates hurt small farmers, who could not produce food as cheaply as the estates.Huge quantities of grain pouring in from conquered lands drove down grain prices.Expansion strained the Roman society.Rome expanded because of its army of loyal citizens.These citizen-soldiers gained little from Rome’s success.
8 Roman Tribune Tiberius Gracchus Tiberius Gracchus addressed the Plebeians regarding the injustices faced by the citizen-soldiers:“The beasts of the field and the birds of the air have their holes and their hiding places, but the men who fight and die for Italy enjoy only the light and the air… You fight and die to give wealth and luxury to others. You are called the masters of the world, but there is not a foot of ground that you can call your own.”-Plutarch, Parallel LivesTiberius and his brother, Gaiuswere killed by Senators for theirprogressive views!
9 Julius Caesar’s Rise to Power - 51 to 44 B.C. 1. Rome plunged into a series of __________.2. Roman armies of citizen-soldiers were loyal firstto their _________, not to Rome.3. Julius Caesar, a military _________, emerged fromthe chaos to take control of _________.4. The senate ordered Caesar to ________ his armyand return to Rome, because they feared his __________.5. Caesar _______ the order and marched his armytoward the Roman capital and _______ the armysent to stop him.6. Upon returning to Rome, Caesar forced the senate tomake him __________.7. He launched a program of ______ ______ to employthe ________ and gave public _______ to the poor.8. Caesar’s enemies were _____ and fearful that he wouldmake himself _____, so they plotted against him and _______him to death.
10 Emperor Augustus Caesar 31 B.C. to A.D. 14 Who was Octavian related to?What title did the Senate give to Octavian?What does this title mean?What came to end under Augustus?What new age began?What did Augustus create?How did he treat all men, of all classes?How did he treat cities and provinces of Rome?
12 Pax RomanaThe government that Augustus organized functioned well for 200 years!This span of time is known as the Pax Romana , or “Roman Peace.”Roman lands stretched from the Euphrates River in the east to Britain in the west. An area the size of the U.S.The military maintained a network of all-weather roads, and protected the seas from pirates.Trade flowed freely from parts of Africa and Asia.People spread ideas and knowledge of the Hellenistic east.
13 Roman Law The institution of Roman laws fostered unity and stability Civil Law / Law of Nations / Justinian’s Code
14 Greco-Roman Civilization The blending of Greek, Hellenistic and Roman traditions. Read pg. 27