Presentation on theme: "The Roman Republic and Empire"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Roman Republic and Empire Chapter 1Section 2
2 Focus Questions1. How did the government of Rome develop into an empire?2. What modern democratic principles originate from ancient Rome?
3 RomansRomans established a government called a republic (a government in which supreme power belongs to the citizens through their right to vote)Romans thought a republic (indirect democracy) would keep any individual from gaining too much powerThe 300 members of the republic’s senate were all patricians—the landholding upper class (nobles)Senators, who served for life, made the Roman laws
5 Roman Government Structure Each year, the senators elected two consuls from among the patriciansThe consuls supervised the business of government and commanded Rome’s armiesIn the event of war, the senate might choose a dictator to temporarily take complete control over the governmentThe law granted each Roman the power to rule for six monthsA dictator is a person who rules with total authority and often in a cruel and brutal manner
9 Roman Government Structure The common people, or plebians, influenced government to have the laws written down in the Twelve TablesThey also gained the right to elect their own officials, called tribunesThe tribunes could veto (preventing a bill passed by a legislature from becoming a law) laws passed by the senate that were harmful to the plebians
12 Expansion of Roman Political System As Rome’s political system evolved, its armies expanded Roman power into the eastern Mediterranean regionOn the north coast of Africa, the Romans also destroyed the city-state of Carthage and established themselves as masters of the Western MediterraneanExpansion, however, created problemsAt issue was who should hold power—the senate or popular political leaders looking to enact reformsSoon Rome was plunged into a civil war over this power struggle
14 Julius CaesarMilitary commander who emerged from the civil chaos and seized controlAlthough Caesar kept the senate and other features of the republic, he forced the senate to make him dictatorJealous and fearful of his power, Caesar’s enemies stabbed him to deathCaesar’s opponents believed he wanted to make himself kingCaesar’s grand-nephew Octavian became the new rulerThe senate gave Octavian the title Augustus Caesar, and he became the first emperor
16 Pax RomanaDuring the time known as the Pax Romana (Roman Peace), the Roman empire brought peace, order, unity, and prosperity to the lands it ruledTrade flowed freely to and from distant lands in Africa and AsiaMerchants carried ivory, gold, spices, silk, and other commoditiesPeople spread/shared ideas as they traveledIdeas about democracy spread to places the Romans traveled
17 Legal Principles From Roman Times Accused presumed innocent until proven guiltyAccused had right to face the accuserAccused could offer a defense to the chargesGuilt had to be established “clearer than daylight” through evidenceJudges interpreted the laws and were expected to make fair decisions
18 Legacy of RomeGreatest legacy of Rome was the establishment of justice through the law(A legacy is something that is left behind to future generations)In the 400s, the emperor Justinian, in what was now the eastern Byzantine empire, reformed the Roman law codeThe Roman Law Code became known as Justinian’s CodeLater, this code influenced the Christian church and medieval monarchsThe Christian church preserved much of the Roman culture in its teachings
19 Powerpoint Questions (17 points) 1. Define republic2. Who were the patricians?3. What were the responsibilities of the two consuls elected by the senate?4. Why would the senate elect a dictator?5. Common people were known as ___.
20 Powerpoint Questions (17 points) 6. Laws were written on tablets called the _________.7. Define veto.8. What city-state did the Romans destroy that established Rome as the master of the Western Mediterranean?9. Identify the military commander who emerged and seized power amidst the chaos and civil wars10. Who became the first emperor of the Roman empire?
21 Powerpoint Questions (17 points) 11. What does Pax Romana mean?12. What happened during the Pax Romana?13. What modern legal principles originate from Roman times? (four points)14. What did the Roman emperor Justinian accomplish during his reign?