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Introduction to the Roman Empire

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1 Introduction to the Roman Empire

2 Introduction 500 BC, Rome just a small town in Italy
133 BC, Rome controlled all of Italy and many foreign lands. Spain, Greece, Macedonia, Turkey, North Africa Roman Empire quickly spread to Europe

3 Reasons for Success Rome was located in the centre of the Mediterranean world. This made it easy for its army and navy to move quickly in any direction.

4 Reasons For Success Soldiers were courageous and well trained, and battles were carefully planned ahead of time by able generals. Romans had the ability to make friends out of their defeated enemies. Eventually conquered people accepted the Roman rule and the peace that it bought.

5 Rise and Fall of Rome: Overview
Video: Legacy of the Roman Empire

6 The Roman Empire: Italy
Italy is shaped like a high-heeled boot Has islands with largest being Sicily Italy is a peninsula that extends from Southern Europe to the Mediterranean Sea

7 The Roman Empire: Italy
Italy is hilly and mountainous The Alps separate Italy from Europe, Apennines run the length of the peninsula Mountains encouraged independent states in Ancient Italy

8 The Roman Empire: Italy
Italy has great farmland Most population found in Italy’s plains Rome found halfway up Rome is built of hills along the Tiber River which protects it from floods and enemies Good for farming, freshwater, transportation, and an outlet to the sea

9 Vocabulary City – State: city that is also a nation or country
Veto: the power to reject proposals and acts, to cancel someone’s decision Twelve tables: Laws that gave common people protection against unfair decisions by patrician judges Punic wars: the three wars Rome fought with Carthage

10 Vocabulary Dictator: absolute ruler of Rome, rules over all the citizens and slaves Carthage: in North Africa. Carthage and Rome fought three wars to control all trade on the Mediterranean

11 Vocabulary First Triumvirate
The three most powerful leaders formed an alliance to govern the country (empire) together (share the power). Crassus, Caesar, and Pompey; each person would be in complete control of a specific portion of the empire. Caesar got the west, Pompey got the centre (Italy), and Crassus the east. They were not allowed to travel into the other leaders area.

12 Vocabulary Second Triumvirate:
Three of Caesar’s supporters who joined forces against Caesar’s murderers.

13 Rome’s Social Class In some republics “the people” had the power to elect the leader. Only certain classes could vote Three classes Patricians Plebeians Slaves (not Romans and couldn’t vote)

14 The Roman Republic 500 B.C., Romans drove out Etruscan rulers and established a Republic Not a democracy like Athens, leaders all patricians (the wealthy) Consuls ran government and army Consuls hold office for a year and little chance of gaining power Two consuls kept each other in check with power to veto

15 The Roman Republic 300 patricians in the senate
Responsible for making tough decisions Common people had no say in decisions Under Roman law common people could not be in government or marry patricians Fight for equality would last nearly 200 years

16 The Roman Republic Early on plebeians said they would not fight in the army unless they got say in government Not good because of ongoing wars with Italy Patricians let plebeians have an assembly and elect 10 people who could argue with consuls These were called Tribunes. Done to avoid civil war

17 The Roman Republic 451 B.C., patricians let plebeians write the Twelve Tables A set of laws to protect plebeians from unfair patrician judges Next two centuries plebeian position improves Allowed to marry patricians, hold office for consul, make laws for all, and become members of the Senate Enslavement for debt outlawed 287 B.C., equality although patricians still made up the nobility and held highest positions

18 Decision Making Decisions made on a personal level
Citizens chose a town elder Elder able to ask citizens for advice to make his decisions Decisions often favoured patricians at expense of plebeians This strained the relationship between patricians and plebeians Patricians did not care about things that would benefit plebeians




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