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Guided Notes – Ancient Rome

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1 Guided Notes – Ancient Rome
200 years a Kingdom-500 years a republic – 500 years an empire


3 King of Macedonia died in 323 B.C.
His general split the empire into 3 parts – Macedonia, Egypt and Persia Power shifted from Greece on the Balkan Peninsula to Rome on the Italian Peninsula Alexander the Great

4 The “Latin's or Romans” migrated from over the Alps into Italy in about 800 B.C. - they were herders and farmers People settled near the Tiber River An area of 7 hills for defense and nice place to live Near water but not on the coast Rome 18 miles from the sea Peoples of Italy

5 Another group of people was called the Etruscans- they ruled much of central Italy
Etruscans brought Greek ideas to Rome After 100 years of rule- In 509 B.C. Romans drove the Etruscans out and set up a Republic form of government Republic means of the people Forum grew in the center of town for trade and public discussion Etruscans

6 Rome’s geography ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Protected by mountains
Apennine Mountains are not hard to travel through for travel Peninsula –great for trade DISADVANTAGES Separated from the rest of Europe by Alps Open for enemy attacks due to coastline and Apennine Mountains Rome’s geography

7 Rome Forms a Republic After removing the Etruscan kings, Rome vowed to never have a king again A republic gave citizens the right to vote for their leaders

8 Roman Class system Patricians were the wealthy aristocrats
Plebeians were the merchants and farmers Slaves were popular but not considered citizens Roman Class system

9 Roman Republic The Romans used the three best governments they knew:
monarchy aristocracy Democracy Roman Republic

10 Roman Republic CONSULS Monarchy
2 consuls who served one year terms and could veto each other’s decisions DUTIES: command army, ran government, appoint dictator in times of emergency LIMITS: only could serve one year terms Roman Republic

11 Senate SENATE Aristocracy
330 member Senate (eventually spread to Plebs) DUTIES: controlled budget, proposed and passed laws LIMITS: could not control army CENSORS: Took census; upheld laws (courts) PRAETORS: Made laws; served as military commanders Senate

12 Tribunes (the plebs get power!)
ASSEMBLIES Democracy TRIBUNES(35 tribes elected 10 officials) came from all over the Republic to represent the plebs VOICE DUTIES: could VETO Senate’s laws; decided to declare war or not LIMITS: could not propose laws Tribunes (the plebs get power!)

13 Roman Citizenship Citizenship extended to:
People born in Roman territories Through naturalization (petitioning for citizenship by foreigners) Slaves who are freed by Roman masters Roman Citizenship

14 The Forum was a place in the center of town where the temple and government buildings were located.
12 tables posted Romans in the Forum

15 Julius Caesar First dictator for life Led the Republic
Assassinated by his Senate 13 years of civil war Julius’s adopted son gained control Augustus Caesar (Octavian) Julius Caesar

16 509 BCE Roman Republic founded 450 BCE 12 tables adopted 367 BCE Plebeians are allowed as consuls 264 BCE Rome controls all of the Italian Peninsula BCE Romans conquer the Mediterranean Area 120 BCE – 44BCE Breakdown of the Republic 44 BCE Julius Caesar rules 27 BCE Octavian Caesar becomes emperor of the Roman Empire Timeline

17 Augustus spread the Roman control far beyond the Italian Peninsula
Empire stretched from Britain to Mesopotamia Roman’s ruled wisely Used their army for protection and building Roman Empire


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