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Warm Up What are the main functions of a plant’s roots, stems and leaves?

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Presentation on theme: "Warm Up What are the main functions of a plant’s roots, stems and leaves?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm Up What are the main functions of a plant’s roots, stems and leaves?

2 Plants Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
Chapter 8 Section 4

3 Discover Activity Are all leaves alike? Page

4 Objectives: To identify the characteristics of gymnosperms and describe how they reproduce. To describe the characteristics of angiosperms and their flowers. To explain how angiosperms reproduce. To describe the two types of angiosperms. To list products from seed plants.

5 Gymnosperms Gymnosperms are plants that produce naked seeds. Their seed are not enclosed by a protective fruit. Reproductive structures are cones.

6 Gymnosperms Gymnosperms are plants that do not have an ovary. Reproductive structures are cones. Gymnosperms consists of four phyla which are cycads, ginkgoes, conifers and gnetophytes.

7 Gymnosperms Cycads are topical plants that look like palm trees.

8 Cycas revoluta from Hawaii, showing female cones bearing large, orange seeds. Image from

9 Cycas revoluta from Hawaii, showing the male cone bearing numerous pollen-producing sporangia. Image from

10 Gymnosperms Conifers are the largest group of gymnosperms. Most of them are evergreens.



13 Image of Araucaria sp. Note the large female comes at the tips of branches. Image from

14 Closeup of Sequoia sempervirens leaf and cone. Image from http://www

15 Gymnosperms Ginkgoes are also called the maidenhair tree and do not exist in the wild.



18 Gymnosperms Gnetophytes are a diverse group that share characteristics with both gymnosperms and angiosperms, they tropical vines and desert plants.

19 Scientific Name Ephedra Copyright © 1996 Michael Donoghue

20 Scientific Name Welwitschia
Specimen Condition Live Specimen Copyright © 1996 Michael Donoghue

21 Scientific Name Gnetum Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Copyright © 1996 Michael Donoghue

22 Reproduction in Gymnosperms
Pollination is the process in which pollen is carried from male to female reproductive parts. In fertilization, the sperm cell joins with the egg cell. Seeds develop and the female cone increases in size.

23 When the seeds are mature, the scales open and the wind scatters the seeds.


25 Try This Activity The Scoop on Cones page 274

26 Angiosperms Angiosperms are plants that develop seeds within a structure called the ovary. Reproductive structures are flowers. Angiosperms make up the largest group of plants in the world--the flowering plants.

27 Flowers Flowers are the structures that contain the reproductive organs of angiosperms.



30 Flower Structure Sepals are the leaf-like structures that enclose the bud. Petals are the colorful, leaf-like and fragrant structures that attract insects and other animals.

31 Flower Structure Stamen is the male reproductive organ that consist of the filament which is a thin stalk topped by a knoblike part called the anther.

32 Flower Structure Pistil is the female reproductive organ and is located in the center of the flower. The pistil consists of a sticky tip called the stigma at the end of a slender tube called the style.

33 Flower Structure Ovary is a hollow structure at the base of the flower that contains the ovule or ovules. A flower is pollinated when a grain of pollen lands on the pistil. The sperm cell will join the egg cell. After the egg cell is fertilized, the ovule develops into a seed and the ovary becomes a fruit that encloses and protects the seeds.


35 Activity Have students feel the shape, weight, and texture of several fruits. Ask students to describe how the physical characteristics of each fruit and its seeds might be related to the way in which its seeds are dispersed.

36 Angiosperms Angiosperms are divided into two major groups: monocots and dicots. “Cot” is short for cotyledon or seed leaf.

37 Monocots are angiosperms that have only one seed leaf. Mono meaning one.
Dicots produce seeds with two seed leaves. Di meaning two.

38 Monocots Examples: grasses, corn, wheat, rice lilies, tulips
Leaves have parallel veins Stems have randomly scattered bundles of vascular tissue. Flowers have petals in multiples of three.

39 Dicots Examples: roses, violets, dandelions, oak, maple, beans, apples
Leaves have branching veins. Vascular tissue is arranged in a ring. Flowers have petals in multiples of four or five.

40 Math Skills Multiples page 280

41 Actitivities Teacher Demo Try This Activity

42 Lab A Close Look at Flowers

43 Homework

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