Persuasion Is All Around You! “Can You Hear Me Now?”
What is persuasion? A means of convincing people: to buy a certain product to believe something or act in a certain way to agree with a point of view
Common persuasive techniques often used in advertising Slogan Repetition Bandwagon Testimonial Emotional Appeal Expert Opinion Purpose?
Slogan: “Can you hear me now?” A catchy phrase or statement often used to sell a service or a product
Repetition: The name of a product is repeated many times HEAD ON Apply directly to the forehead
Bandwagon A statement suggesting that everyone is using a specific product, so you should too
Testimonial A well-known person supports a product or service
Emotional Appeal A person is made to have strong feelings about a situation or product
Example: "I know the exam is graded based on performance, but you should give me an A. My cat has been sick, my car broke down, and I've had a cold, so it was really hard for me to study!" The conclusion here is "You should give me an A." But the criteria for getting an A have to do with learning and applying the material from the course; the principle the arguer wants us to accept (people who have a hard week deserve A's) is clearly unacceptable. Example: "It's wrong to tax corporations--think of all the money they give to charity, and of the costs they already pay to run their businesses!" Definition: The appeal to pity takes place when an arguer tries to get people to accept a conclusion by making them feel sorry for someone. APPEAL TO PITY
Appeal to Fear Makes people feel as if their health, safety, or security is in danger.
Expert opinion Experts approve this product, so you should use it “Four out of five dentists recommend sugarless gum for their patients who chew gum”
What is a fallacy? A fallacy is an error of reasoning. These are flawed statements that often sound true Logical fallacies are often used to strengthen an argument, but if the reader detects them the argument can backfire, and damage the writer’s credibility
Loaded Terms are words or phrases with strongly positive or negative connotations to stir people’s emotions. “Most zoos fail to live up to their own propaganda and vast numbers of zoo animals continue to endure lives of misery and deprivation.”
Leading Question A type of question that implies or contains its own answer. “You saw her punch in her lunch number in the cafeteria, and then you used it to get into her account, didn’t you?” Questions should be asked in a way which invites the questioned person to respond without being influenced by the speaker’s attitude.
Caricature A cartoon or descriptive writing that greatly exaggerates certain features of a subject to create a comic or absurd effect. Editorials often contain caricatures. How would a caricature be persuasive? Why is it a fallacy?
False Assumptions The basis of an argument (assumption or premise) is incorrect, so the conclusion drawn may be in error. If the streets are wet, it has rained recently. (premise) The streets are wet. (conclusion) Therefore, it has rained recently. What is wrong with this way of thinking?
Relevant facts Advertisers spend about $200 billion a year on TV advertising The average cost for Super Bowl ads is $2.6 million per 30 second spot The average American watches about 24,000 TV commercials a year http://television-commercial.net/
Making Connections What is your favorite jingle? What slogan for a product do you find yourself saying? What TV commercial has influenced you to make a purchase? Since Tubby Smith and Billy Gillispie shop at Kroger, does that mean we should too?
Reflection “Persuasion is all around you” In addition to TV commercials, where else do you see persuasion all around you? Is that persuasion influencing you or your family in any way? Explain.
Jennifer Bernhard Literacy Specialist Clark County Schools Jennifer.firstname.lastname@example.org