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Introduction to Physical Fitness and Wellness

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1 Introduction to Physical Fitness and Wellness
1 Introduction to Physical Fitness and Wellness

2 In This Chapter Understand Define Determine Learn
Benefits and importance of fitness and wellness Define Physical Fitness Determine If medical clearance is necessary Learn Guidelines for physical activity Techniques for compliance of a healthy lifestyle plan How to write SMART goals

3 Physical Activity vs. Exercise
Bodily movement using skeletal muscles that requires expenditure of energy Produces progressive health benefits Exercise Physical activity that is planned, structured and involves repetitive bodily movement Improves one or more components of physical fitness Only ½ of U.S. adults meet minimum recommendations for weekly exercise

4 Lifestyle, Health, and Quality of Life
Sedentary Death Syndrome is 2nd greatest threat to U.S. public health Chronic diseases related to inactivity: Hypertension Heart disease Diabetes Chronic low back pain Obesity 80% of deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and cancer could be prevented by healthy lifestyles

5 Leading Causes of Death in the United States
Figure 1.1. Leading Causes of Death in the United States: 2011.

6 Life Expectancy Figure 1.2. Life expectancy at birth for selected countries as of December 2012.

7 Importance of Increased Physical Activity
Physical activity significantly decreases the risk of developing or dying from: Heart disease Stroke Type 2 diabetes Colon and breast cancer High blood pressure Osteoporotic factures

8 2008 Federal Guidelines for Physical Activity
Recommendations are Based on Performing Moderate Physical Activity Defined: Any activity that requires expenditure of 150 calories per day – 1,000 calories/week Examples Walking Swimming Pushing stroller Cycling Volleyball Dancing fast

9 2008 Federal Guidelines for Physical Activity (cont’d.)
Adults 2 hours 30 minutes of moderate-intensity – OR - 1 hour 15 minutes of vigorous-intensity – AND - Muscle strengthening 2 days Pregnant and Postpartum Women 2 hours 30 minutes of moderate-intensity IF haven’t previously performed vigorous exercise – OR – Continue vigorous-intensity exercise throughout pregnancy IF previously performing at this level

10 2008 Federal Guidelines for Physical Activity (cont’d.)
Children One hour or more of moderate-intensity activity every day Vigorous intensity exercise three days each week Bone-strengthening activities three days per week

11 Wellness For a wellness way of life, individuals must:
Be physically fit Show no signs of disease Avoid all risk factors for disease

12 Dimensions of Wellness
Figure 1.4. Dimensions of wellness.

13 Health-Related Fitness
Figure 1.5. Health-related components of physical fitness.

14 Skill-Related Fitness
Figure 1.5. Motor skill-related components of physical fitness.

15 Benefits of Physical Fitness
Increasing cardio-respiratory fitness dramatically decreases risk of death from all causes. Vigorous activity is associated with greater longevity.

16 Benefits of Physical Fitness (cont’d.)
Figure 1.8. Effects of fitness changes on mortality rates.

17 Benefits of Physical Fitness (cont’d.)
Long-Term Benefits Improves Helps Reduces Posture Sleep Depression Immune system Back pain Anxiety Recovery Body weight Mortality Cognitive function Cholesterol Disability

18 Benefits of Physical Fitness (cont’d.)
Short-Term Benefits Improves Increases Reduces Insulin sensitivity Endorphins Blood Pressure Endothelial function Muscle storage in fat Blood lipids Brain function Heart rate Pain Digestion Fat burning Stress

19 National Health Objectives for the Year 2020
Take personal responsibility for health behavior Extend health benefits to all people and all communities Health promotion and disease prevention

20 The Path to Fitness and Wellness
1. Determine whether medical clearance is needed 2. Assess your overall level of physical fitness 3. Prescribe personal programs 4. Learn behavior modification techniques to help change unhealthy lifestyle patterns 5. Develop sound diet and weight-control programs 6. Implement healthy lifestyle program 7. Discern myths from facts pertaining to exercise and health-related topics

21 Behavior Modification
Process used to permanently change negative behaviors in favor of positive behaviors that will lead to better health and well-being

22 Not everyone can just ‘stop’ their behavior
Changing Behavior 1. Stopping negative behavior 2. Preventing relapse of negative behavior 3. Developing positive behavior 4. Strengthening a positive behavior 5. Maintaining positive behavior Not everyone can just ‘stop’ their behavior

23 Exercise/Exercise Dropout Cycle
Figure Exercise/exercise dropout cycle.

24 Changing Behavior (cont’d.)
1. Pre-contemplation Not considering change 2. Contemplation Acknowledge problem 3. Preparation Planning change 4. Action Actively doing things to change 5. Maintenance Continues adherence to change Termination occurs after five years of maintenance

25 Motivation and Locus of Control
Three Impediments to Change Competence Lacking skills to accomplish task Confidence Have skills, but don’t believe in them Motivation Have skill and confidence, but reason for change is not meaningful

26 Behavior Modification Principles
1. Self-analysis 2. Behavior analysis 3. Goal setting 4. Social support 5. Monitoring 6. Positive outlook 7. Reinforcement

27 Remember to re-evaluate
SMART Goals Specific Measurable Acceptable Realistic Time-specific S Remember to re-evaluate M A R T

28 A Word of Caution Before You Start Exercise
Discuss your plans with your physician to ensure you are not at risk

29 Assess Yourself Do you make a constant and deliberate effort to stay healthy and achieve the highest potential for well-being? Are you familiar with the following concepts? The importance of lifetime fitness and wellness Recommended guidelines for physical activity Components of physical fitness Benefits of comprehensive wellness program Behavior modification techniques SMART goals

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