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Basic Principles of Physical Fitness

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Presentation on theme: "Basic Principles of Physical Fitness"— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic Principles of Physical Fitness
Chapter 2

2 Physical Activity and Exercise for Health and Fitness
Physical activity levels have declined Healthy People 2010: More than 55% of U.S. adults do not engage in recommended amounts of activity 25% are not active at all

3 Levels of Physical Activity
Figure 2.1

4 Physical Activity on a Continuum
any body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and requiring energy Exercise: planned, structured, repetitive movement of the body designed to improve or maintain physical fitness Physical fitness: a set of physical attributes that allows the body to respond or adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort

5 Lifestyle Physical Activity
For health promotion: Expend about 150 calories—equivalent to 30 minutes of brisk walking—on most days For health promotion and weight management: Engage in 60 or more daily minutes of activity to prevent unhealthy weight gain Engage in daily minutes of activity to sustain weight loss

6 Moderate Amounts of Physical Activity
Figure 2.2

7 Exercise to Develop Physical Fitness
Lifestyle physical activity improves health but may not improve fitness A structured, formal exercise program improves physical fitness and provides even greater health improvements

8 How Much Physical Activity Is Enough?
Moderate-intensity versus high-intensity exercise Continuous versus intermittent exercise Low-intensity exercise improves health but may not be very beneficial for improving physical fitness

9 How Much Physical Activity Is Enough?

10 Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness
Health-related fitness = physical capacities that contribute to health Five components: 1. Cardiorespiratory endurance = the ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity

11 Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness
2. Muscular strength = the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort 3. Muscular endurance = the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to remain contracted or to contract repeatedly 4. Flexibility = the range of motion in a joint or group of joints

12 Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness
5. Body composition = the proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) in the body

13 Skill-Related Components of Fitness
Speed Power Agility Balance Coordination Reaction time Image source: PhotoLink/Getty Images (Courtesy of McGraw-Hill Higher Education)

14 Specificity—Adapting to Type of Training
The body adapts to the particular type and amount of stress placed on it To develop a particular fitness component, perform exercises specifically designed for that component

15 Progressive Overload—Adapting to Amount of Training
Placing increasing amounts of stress on the body causes adaptations that improve fitness; progression is critical FITT principle for overload: Frequency—How often Intensity—How hard Time—How long (duration) Type—Mode of activity

16 Reversibility—Adapting to a Reduction in Training
Fitness improvements are lost when demands on the body are lowered If you stop exercising, up to 50% of fitness improvements are lost within 2 months

17 Individual Differences— Limits on Adaptability
Everyone is NOT created equal from a physical standpoint There are large individual differences in ability to improve fitness, body composition, and sports skills

18 Designing Your Own Exercise Program
Medical clearance Fitness assessment Setting goals Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic Time frame specific

19 Designing Your Own Exercise Program
Choosing activities for a balanced program Include activities to develop health-related components of physical fitness

20 Physical Activity Pyramid
Figure 2.3

21 Benefits of Different Types of Programs
Figure 2.4

22 Guidelines for Training
Train the way you want your body to change Train regularly Start slowly, and get in shape gradually; do not overtrain Warm up before exercise Cool down after exercise Exercise safely

23 Guidelines for Training
Listen to your body, and get adequate rest Cycle the volume and intensity of your workouts Try training with a partner Vary your activities Train your mind Fuel your activity appropriately Have fun Track your progress Keep your exercise program in perspective

24 Progression of an Exercise Program: Get in Shape Gradually
Figure 2.5

25 Amount of Exercise for Fitness Benefits

26 Choosing a Fitness Center
Convenience Atmosphere Safety Trained personnel Cost Effectiveness

27 Wellness Worksheet Assignment
Wellness Worksheets can be accessed online at From the website above, click on “student edition” at the bottom left column. Click on “wellness worksheets” Click on “126 Wellness Worksheets are available online” in the middle of the page. Click on “69: Your Physical Activity Profile” and complete the worksheet. Print out the completed worksheet and submit on Monday, January 30th. Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 1 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

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