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Understanding Fitness and Wellness PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Fitness and Wellness PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding Fitness and Wellness PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. 1

2 Learning Objectives Understand the wellness concept Outline the components of wellness Describe the health benefits of exercise Compare the goals of health-related fitness and sport performance conditioning programs Describe the components of health-related physical fitness Describe the Stages of Change model and the steps to making positive health behavior changes

3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. What is Wellness? A state of healthy living achieved by a lifestyle that includes: - Regular physical activity - Proper nutrition - Elimination of unhealthy behavior (avoiding high-risk activities) - Maintaining positive emotional and spiritual health

4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. What is Wellness? Six Components of Wellness Physical Health Includes proper nutrition, performing self-exams, and practicing personal safety Emotional Health Also called Mental Health, and includes social skills, positive interpersonal relationships, self-esteem and the ability to cope with stress Intellectual Health Keeping your mind active through life-long learning

5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. What is Wellness? Six Components of Wellness Spiritual Health Having a sense of meaning and purpose in life Social Health Developing and maintaining meaningful interpersonal relationships Environmental Health The influence of the environment on your health, and your behaviors that have an affect on the environment

6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Interaction of Wellness Components Figure 1.1

7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Wellness Goals for the Nation The U.S. government has established wellness goals for the nation, called Healthy People 2010 Healthy People 2010 has two primary goals: - Increase the number and quality of healthy years for all Americans - Reduce health disparities across segments of the population in our society

8 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Wellness Goals for the Nation Key Healthy People 2010 objectives: - Increase daily physical activity levels - Reduce cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption - Increase consumption of fruits and vegetables - Reduce the death rate from cancers including lung, prostate, and skin (melanoma) cancer - Promote behavior that contributes to healthy body weight and fewer chronic back conditions - Reduce the number of people suffering from chronic stress

9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Physical Activity vs. Exercise Physical Activity Includes all physical movement, regardless of the energy expended or the reason for it Can involve occupational, lifestyle or leisure activities Exercise Is a type of leisure-time physical activity Is performed specifically to enhance health and/or fitness Involves planned, structured and repetitive bodily movement, i.e., all conditioning activities and sports

10 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Benefits of Physical Activity Reduced risk of heart disease (CVD) Reduced risk of diabetes Increased bone mass Easier aging (prolonged working capacity) Increased longevity Improved psychological well-being

11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Getting Regular Exercise Figure 1.3

12 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Exercise Aids Aging Figure 1.4

13 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Five Major Components of Health-Related Physical Fitness Cardiorespiratory Endurance Muscular Strength Muscular Endurance Flexibility Body Composition

14 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Cardiorespiratory Endurance Also called aerobic fitness Often considered to be the KEY component of health-related physical fitness Measures the heart’s ability to pump blood to the muscles during exercise, and the muscles’ ability to utilize oxygen in the blood Pertains to the ability to perform endurance exercises, such as running, cycling and swimming

15 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Muscular Strength Measured by how much force a muscle (or muscle group) generates during a single maximal contraction Is important in almost all sports Allows optimal functioning in everyday tasks Even modest amounts of weight training (also called resistance training) can improve muscular strength

16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Muscular Endurance The ability of a muscle to generate a submaximal force repeatedly Is related to, but not the same as, muscular strength Gains in muscular strength usually also improve muscular endurance Gains in muscular endurance do not usually improve muscular strength

17 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Flexibility The ability to move joints freely through their full range of motion Without regular stretching, muscles and tendons shorten and become tight Flexibility needs vary, but everyone needs some degree of flexibility to function normally Research suggests that flexibility is important in injury prevention and in reducing low back pain

18 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Body Composition The relative amounts of fat and lean tissue in your body A high percentage of body fat (obesity) is associated with increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and some cancers Regular physical activity and exercise is key to maintaining a healthy body fat percentage

19 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. The Stage of Change Model There are five stages to behavior change: Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance

20 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. The Stages of Change Model Progression through the stages is not usually linear People often move between stages several times before permanent change is achieved Setbacks are common, and do not have to mean failure Evaluating setbacks can be a crucial part of success and developing a better plan The key element is the desire to change

21 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Seven Common Behavior Modification Strategies Behavior change contracts List goals and plans and sign it along with a support person Setting realistic short-term and long-term goals Set short-term goals first, then build on them Self-monitoring Analyze your behavior and identify triggers Counter conditioning Replace unhealthy behaviors with healthy ones Self-reinforcement Reward yourself (appropriately) when you meet goals Decisional balance Weigh the positive outcomes against behavior negatives Relapse prevention Identify high-risk triggers and develop a plan to avoid them

22 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Behavior Modification Strategies Assess Your Habits Personal assessment of risky health habits is a good place to begin Identify where you are in the Stages of Change Model Identify Barriers Barriers to healthy change vary, but include things such as time constraints, social pressure, force of habit or negative self-image Identifying personal barriers is a key element in relapse prevention Change Unhealthy Behaviors Develop a detailed plan of action Seek out resources (counselors, fitness specialists, support groups, etc) if you need help Shaping: is the process of breaking a task or behavior into small steps in order to accomplish a larger goal Shaping will help you to manage the changes and make them seem less overwhelming

23 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Summary Wellness means “healthy living” Total wellness is achieved through a balance of physical, emotional, intellectual, spiritual, social and environmental health Regular exercise offers many important health benefits The five key components of “total” health-related physical fitness are cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition Behavior modification strategies can be very helpful in changing health behaviors


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