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Basic Principles of Physical Fitness

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1 Basic Principles of Physical Fitness
Chapter 2

2 Physical Activity on a Continuum
any body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and requiring energy Exercise: planned, structured, repetitive movement of the body designed to improve or maintain physical fitness Physical fitness: a set of physical attributes that allows the body to respond or adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort

3 Physical Activity and Exercise for Health and Fitness
Levels of physical activity have declined in recent years and remain low for all Americans The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported the following: 33% participate in some leisure activity About 28% of Americans report exercising vigorously for 10 minutes 3 times per week. 25% are physically inactive 39% of Americans with graduate degrees exercise compared to only 78% of high school dropouts

4 Percentage of adult Americans reporting no leisure-time physical activity

5 Increasing Physical Activity to Improve Health and Wellness
2010: the U.S. Surgeon General issued The Surgeon General’s Vision for a Healthy and Fit Nation. 2008: The U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommends the following: 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise, per week Increase the volume and intensity of an exercise for more health benefits Healthy adults should do resistive exercises at least twice a week Examples of moderate physical activity: Brisk walking Dancing Swimming Cycling Yard work Example of vigorous exercise: jogging

6 Moderate Amounts of Physical Activity
Figure 2.2

7 Exercise to Develop Physical Fitness
Lifestyle physical activity improves health but may not improve fitness A structured, formal exercise program improves physical fitness and provides even greater health improvements

8 How Much Physical Activity Is Enough?

9 How Much Physical Activity Is Enough?
Moderate-intensity versus high-intensity exercise Continuous versus intermittent exercise Low-intensity exercise improves health but may not be very beneficial for improving physical fitness

10 Health-related Components of Physical Fitness
There are 5 areas of fitness which help establish health benefits Health-related fitness helps you withstand physical challenges and protects you from diseases The 5 components: Cardiorespiratory Fitness Muscular Strength Muscular Endurance Flexibility Body Composition

11 Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Ability to perform prolonged, large muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high levels of intensity. Depends on the ability of the lungs to deliver oxygen from the environment to the bloodstream and the efficiency of the heart and nervous system Cardiorespiratory fitness improves: The heart pumps more blood per heartbeat Resting heart rate slows Blood volume increases Blood supply to tissue improves The body can cool itself better Resting blood pressure decreases Metabolism in skeletal muscle is enhanced In older adults, levels of antioxidant chemicals are increased and lowers oxidative stress Cardiorespiratory endurance exercise examples: Walking Jogging Cycling Aerobic dancing

12 Muscle Strength and Endurance
Muscular Strength is the amount of force a muscle can produce in a single maximum effort Muscular Endurance is the ability to resist fatigue and sustain a given level of muscle tension for a given time. Benefits include: Increased body mass Increased metabolism Reduced effects of sarcopenia Increases antioxidant enzymes and lowers oxidative stress in older adults Increased bone density Improved self-confidence and ability to manage stress Improved posture and reduction of low back pain

13 Flexibility The ability to move the joints through their full range of motion Flexibility is affected by many factors such as joint structure, length and elasticity of connective tissue, and nervous system activity. Flexibility is needed in everyday routines. Benefits include: Lowered risk of back injuries Promotion of good posture and decreased risk of other joint injuries Reduction in age-related stiffness

14 Body Composition The proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) in the body Healthy body composition is comprised of high levels of fat-free mass and an acceptable low level of body fat. The relative amount of body fat a person has does have an impact upon overall health and fitness. Too much body fat could have the following effects: Heart disease Insulin resistance High blood pressure Stroke Joint problems Type II Diabetes The best way to lose fat is through exercise and a sensible diet. Blood vessel inflammation Gallbladder Disease Cancer Back pain Premature death

15 Skill-Related Components of Fitness
Speed Power Agility Balance Coordination Reaction time Image source: PhotoLink/Getty Images (Courtesy of McGraw-Hill Higher Education)

16 Specificity—Adapting to Type of Training
The body adapts to the particular type and amount of stress placed on it To develop a particular fitness component, perform exercises specifically designed for that component

17 Progressive Overload—Adapting to Amount of Training
Placing increasing amounts of stress on the body causes adaptations that improve fitness; progression is critical FITT principle for overload: Frequency—How often Intensity—How hard Time—How long (duration) Type—Mode of activity

18 Reversibility—Adapting to a Reduction in Training
Fitness improvements are lost when demands on the body are lowered If you stop exercising, up to 50% of fitness improvements are lost within 2 months

19 Individual Differences— Limits on Adaptability
Everyone is NOT created equal from a physical standpoint There are large individual differences in ability to improve fitness, body composition, and sports skills

20 Designing Your Own Exercise Program
Medical clearance Men under the age of 40 and women under 50: exercise is probably safe PAR-Q GXT Assessing yourself Assess you fitness level for all 5 health-related fitness components Set goals: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time (SMART) Choose activities for a balanced program

21 Physical Activity Pyramid
Figure 2.3

22 Benefits of Different Types of Programs
Figure 2.4

23 Guidelines for Training
Train the way you want your body to change Train regularly Start slowly, and get in shape gradually; do not overtrain Warm up before exercise Cool down after exercise Exercise safely

24 Guidelines for Training
Listen to your body, and get adequate rest Cycle the volume and intensity of your workouts Try training with a partner Vary your activities Train your mind Fuel your activity appropriately Have fun Track your progress Keep your exercise program in perspective

25 Progression of an Exercise Program: Get in Shape Gradually
Figure 2.5

26 Amount of Exercise for Fitness Benefits

27 Choosing a Fitness Center
Convenience Atmosphere Safety Trained personnel Cost Effectiveness

28 Wellness Worksheet Assignment
Chapter 2 Connect Worksheet is due on Wednesday, September 12th, no later than 11:59PM.

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