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Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 1 Requirements Engineering from a Standards Perspective INCOSE Hampton Roads Area Chapter Requirements Management.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 1 Requirements Engineering from a Standards Perspective INCOSE Hampton Roads Area Chapter Requirements Management."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 1 Requirements Engineering from a Standards Perspective INCOSE Hampton Roads Area Chapter Requirements Management and Analysis Seminar November 4-5, 2008 John O. Clark Chief Engineer, CSEP Northrop Grumman Corporation

2 Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 2 All EIA, IEEE, ANSI, and ISO/IEC copyrighted material has been removed from this version in order to comply with the copyright owners requirements. Refer to the figures in the standards. Copyright Acknowledgement Acknowledgement

3 Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 3 Content Introduction –Purpose –SE Standards –In-Seat Warm-up Exercise –Key Terms –What is Systems Engineering? –What is a Requirement? Want is Requirements Management? What is the Requirements Engineering Process? –MIL-STD-499B, EIA/IS-632-1994 –IEEE 1220-2005 –ANSI/EIA-632-1998 –ISO/IEC 15288-2008, IEEE Std 15288-2008 –ISO/IEC TR 19760 –ISO/IEC 12207-2008, IEEE Std 12207-2008 Appendix – Acronyms

4 Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 4 Purpose Introduce the systems engineering standards which include the requirements engineering processes Emphasize the requirements engineering processes from a standards perspective Stand on the standards," as opposed to relying solely on other sources such as instructions, procedures, guides, textbooks, education, training, and even experience in performing requirements engineering functions Develop an appreciation for the different views of the requirements engineering process based on how each of the standards presents this view, thereby getting a more complete view Show the relationships between systems requirements engineering and software requirements engineering based on these standards

5 Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 5 IEEE 1220 SE Standards EIA/IS 632 ISO/IEC 15288 EIA 632 Level of Detail Breadth of Scope Provided with the permission of Sarah Sheard from Sheard, Sarah A., Software Productivity Consortium (SPC), and Lake, Jerome G., Systems Management international (SMi), Systems Engineering Standards and Models Compared, July 1998. Sheard and Lake Scope and Detail of the SE Standards

6 Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 6 In-Seat Warm-up Exercise Instructions: Answer the following questions on your own without looking at the materials: –What is a requirement? –Want is requirements analysis? –What is requirements management? –What is requirements engineering? –What is the requirements engineering process? Time: 5 minutes JOC

7 Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 7 Capability: A group of related requirements raised to a higher level of abstraction. Synonyms include function, subject, object, or other term useful for presenting the requirements. Requirement: A condition for acceptance of the system. Functional Requirement: What? Performance Requirement: How well? Configuration Item (CI): Any item designated for Configuration Mgmt. Preliminary Design: High-Level Design, one level below (inside) the CI. Detailed Design: Low-Level Design, lowest level of the CI. Validation: Right system? Verification: System right? Verification Methods: Analysis (including modeling and simulation), Demonstration, Test, and Inspection. Use Case: A scenario-driven functional thread through the system. Decompose: Parse or separate. Derive: Deduce (e.g., if a=b+c then c=a-b, or Ill know it when I see it). Synthesis: Design. Translate requirements (problems) into solutions. Architecture: Design or structure. Key Terms JOC

8 Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 8 Capability: Verb Noun Example: Transport personnel safely over land. Requirement: Noun shall verb. Example: The car shall stop within 100 feet at 50 mph, weigh less than 3000 lbs, and be green. Functional (what) Performance (how well) Physical, Design, or Constraint What is Systems Engineering? JOC Key Terms and Relationships System Requirements Document (SRD) System Specification (SS) (MIL-STD-961E) System/Subsystem Specification (SSS) Software Requirements Specification (SRS) System/Subsystem Design Description (SSDD) System Specification (SS) (MIL-STD-961E) Software Design Description (SDD) Capabilities Functions (SSDD/SS/SDD) Components Requirements Operational Requirements Document (ORD) Initial Capabilities Document (ICD) Capabilities Development Document (CDD) Mission Needs Statement (MNS) Operational Concept Document (OCD) System Threat Assessment Report (STAR) Capability: Verb Noun Example: Transport personnel safely over land. Requirement: Noun shall verb. Example: The car shall stop within 100 feet at 50 mph, weigh less than 3000 lbs, and be green. Functional (what) Performance (how well) Physical, Design, or Constraint Function: Verb Noun, Verb-ing, or Verb. Examples: Stop Car, Stopping, or Stop. Capability: Verb Noun Example: Transport personnel safely over land. Requirement: Noun shall verb. Example: The car shall stop within 100 feet at 50 mph, weigh less than 3000 lbs, and be green. Functional (what) Performance (how well) Physical, Design, or Constraint Function: Verb Noun, Verb-ing, or Verb. Examples: Stop Car, Stopping, or Stop. Component: Noun. Example: Brake.

9 Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 9 What is a Requirement? (cont) Functional Thread Analysis / Use Cases INCOSE SE HDBK Requirements Specifications and Test Procedures can be written using Use Cases. Provided with the permission of INCOSE from INCOSE SE Handbook, Version 2a. Copyright 2002, 2004 by INCOSE.

10 Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 10 Technical Baselines, Documents, and Reviews A/O – Alternative/Operational CD – Critical Design DBDD – Data Base Design Description F – Functional FCA – Functional Configuration Audit HDD – Hardware Design Description HRS- Hardware Requirements Specification IDD – Interface Design Description IRS – Interface Requirements Specification ORD – Operational Requirements Document PCA – Physical Configuration Audit PD – Preliminary Design TLR – Top Level Requirements R – Requirements What is Requirements Management? Baselines Performance Requirements Functional Allocated Developmental Physical/Product ORD / TLR SRD / SS / SSS External IRS SRD / SS / SSS SSDD, SRS, HRS, Internal IRS HDD (Drawings) SDD, DBDD, IDD Software Hardware R F PD CD FCA/V PCA Documents Reviews JOC A/O SDD – Software Design Description SRD – System Requirements Document SS – System Specification SSS – System/Subsystem Specification SRS – Software Requirements Specification SSDD – System/Subsystem Design Specification V – Verification

11 Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 11 FULL MENU Review Types: Document Types: J. Clark ARFI PD CDTRTCFCAVR PCA ORD/ ICD S/SS IRS S/SS IRS S/SDD SDD HDD IDD DBDD SDD HDD IDD DBDD T Plan T Proc T RptRpt LOWEST CONFIGURATIO N ITEM LEVEL Subsystem Allocated Baseline = LCI Requirements Baseline (e.g., Software Requirements Baseline) SWRRSWFRSWPDRSWCDRSWTRRSWTCRSWFCASWPCA SWRS IRS SWRS IRS SWDD IDD DBDD SWDD IDD DBDD T Plan T Proc T RptFCA Rpt PCA Rpt Technical Baselines, Documents, and Reviews for a System SYSTE M LEVEL System Requirements Baseline System requirements allocated to Subsystems ASRSRRSFRSPDRSCDRSTRRSTCRSVRSPCA ORD/ ICD SS IRS SS IRS SDD T Plan T Proc T RptFCA Rpt PCA Rpt Rqmts, Functions, & Prelim Design Flow Down: Detailed Design, Verification & Validation Roll Up: ISR SUBSYSTEM LEVEL System Allocated Baseline = Subsystem Requirements Baseline Subsystem requirements allocated to Lowest Configuration Items (LCIs) SubRRSubFRSubPDRSubCDRSubTRRSubTCRSubFCASubPCA SubS IRS SubDD T Plan T Proc T RptFCA Rpt PCA Rpt SubS IRS ISubR Rqmts, Functions, & Prelim Design Flow Down: Detailed Design, Verification & Validation Roll Up: What is Requirements Management? (cont)

12 Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 12 MIL-STD-499B, EIA/IS-632-1994 Systems Engineering IEEE 1220-2005 IEEE Standard for Application and Management of the Systems Engineering Process ANSI/EIA-632-1998 Processes for Engineering a System ISO/IEC 15288-2008, IEEE Std 15288-2008 Systems and Software Engineering – System Life Cycle Processes ISO/IEC 12207-2008, IEEE Std 12207-2008 Systems and Software Engineering – Software Life Cycle Processes ISO/IEC TR 19760 Systems Engineering – A guide for the Application of ISO/IEC 15288 (System Life Cycle Processes) What is the Requirements Engineering Process?

13 Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 13 JOC Requirements Trade Studies and Assessments Effectiveness Analysis, etc. Physical Design Trade Studies Effectiveness Analysis, etc. Systems Analysis Functional Trade Studies and Assessments Effectiveness Analysis, etc. Requirements Analysis Define Requirements Define Interfaces Decompose and Derive Requirements Define Constraints & Conditions Define Requirements Architecture Establish Requirements Baseline Functional Analysis & Allocation Define Functions Allocate Requirements to Functions Define Functional Interfaces Decompose Functions to Sub functions Allocate Decomposed and Derived Requirements to Sub functions Define Functional Architecture Develop Functional Flow Block Diagrams Establish Functional Baseline Physical Design & Allocation Define Subsystems and Components Allocate Functions and Sub functions to Subsystems and Components Define Subsystem & Component Rqmts Define Subsystem & Component Interfaces Establish Allocated Baseline Define Physical Architecture Develop Physical Flow Block Diagrams Establish Physical/Product Baseline Control R22 R21 R2 R1 Sys I/F R22 R11 Risk Management Configuration & Data Management Interface Management Performance-Based Progress Measurement: - SEMS/IMP & SEDS/IMS - TPMs & Metrics - Technical Reviews - Earned Value Design LoopRequirements Loop Verification Loop Requirements Architecture Functional Architecture Physical Architecture SOW, Deliverables WBS, SBS, PBS Work & Planning Packages and Assessments I/F F11 F12 F21 F2 F1 Sys I/F F22 C1 C2 C3 Sub2 Sub1 Sys I/F C2 MIL-STD-499B and EIA/IS-632 (cont) John Clark Amplified Version

14 Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 14 Summary Introduction –Purpose –SE Standards –In-Seat Warm-up Exercise –Key Terms –What is Systems Engineering? –What is a Requirement? Want is Requirements Management? What is the Requirements Engineering Process? –MIL-STD-499B, EIA/IS-632-1994 –IEEE 1220-2005 –ANSI/EIA-632-1998 –ISO/IEC 15288-2008, IEEE Std 15288-2008 –ISO/IEC TR 19760 –ISO/IEC 12207-2008, IEEE Std 12207-2008 Appendix – Acronyms

15 Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 15 THE END! For More Information Contact: John O. Clark Northrop Grumman Mission Systems Command and Control Systems Division Warfare Systems Engineering Department 468 Viking Drive Virginia Beach, VA 23452-7308 USA john.clark@ngc.com (757) 481-1504

16 Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 16 Acronyms AcronymDescription AAlternative AcqAcquisition ACWPActual Cost of Work Performed ADArchitectural Design ANSIAmerican National Standards Institute AoAAnalysis of Alternatives APAssessment Process ASRAlternative System Review AT&LAnalysis, Technology and Logistics ATMAutomatic Teller Machine BCWPBudgeted Cost of Work Performed BCWSBudgeted Cost of Work Scheduled CComponent CDCritical Design CDConcept Decision CDDCapability Development Document CDRCritical Design Review CDRLContract Data Requirements List CIConfiguration Item CMConfiguration Management Plan CMMICapability Maturity Model Integrated CPControl Process CPDCapability Production Document CSCIComputer Software Configuration Item CVCost Variance CWBSContract Work Breakdown Structure DABDefense Acquisition Board DBDDData Base Design Description DIDData Item Description DisDisposal DMDecision Making DMPData Management Plan DMUDefense Management University DOD-STDDepartment of Defense Standard DOTMLPFDoctrine, Organization, Training, Material, Leadership, Personnel, Facilities DSMCDefense Systems Management College EEMEnterprise Environment Management EIAElectronic Industries Association

17 Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 17 EPVPEnd Products Validation Process EVMEarned Value Management FFunction, Functional FFinal FABFinal Allocated Baseline FCAFunctional Configuration Audit FFBFinal Functional Baseline FFBDFunctional Flow Block Diagram FFDFunctional Flow Diagram FOCFull On Capability FOSFamily of Systems FPBFinal Product Baseline FRBFinal Requirements Baseline FRPFull Rate Production FWFirmware HDBKHandbook HDDHardware Design Description HDPHardware Development Plan HSHardware Specification HSIPHuman Systems Integration Plan HWHardware HWCIHardware Configuration Item IImplementation I&TPIntegration and Test Plan ICDInitial Capabilities Document IDDInterface Design Specification IECInternational Electrotechnical Commission IEEEInstitute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers ILSPIntegrated Logistics Support Plan IMInformation Management, Investment Management IMPIntegrated Master Plan IMSIntegrated Master Schedule INCOSEInternational Council on Systems Engineering IntIntegration IOCInitial Operational Capability IOT&EInitial Operational Test and Evaluation IPImplementation Process IRSInterface Requirements Specification Acronyms (cont)

18 Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 18 ISOInternational Organization for Standardization ISRInterim System Review JOCJohn O. Clark JROCJoint Requirements Oversight Council LRIPLimited Rate Initial Production MIL-STDMilitary Standard MOManual Operation MSMilestone MTMaintenance N2N2 N x N NAVAIRNaval Air Systems Command NAVSEANaval Sea Systems Command NSSNational Security Systems OBSOrganizational Breakdown Structure OCDOperational Concepts Document OpOperation ORDOperational Requirements Document OSDOffice of the Secretary of Defense OSJTFOpen Systems Joint Task Force PPreliminary P3IPre-Planned Product Improvement PAProcess Area PABPreliminary Allocated baseline PAPProduct Assurance Plan PBSProduct Breakdown Structure PCAPhysical Configuration Audit PDPreliminary Design PDRPreliminary Design Review PEOProject Executive Officer PFBPreliminary Functional Baseline PINPersonal Identification Number PMPProgram Management Plan PPProject Planning PPBPreliminary Product Baseline PRBPreliminary Requirements Baseline PROCProcess PWBSProgram Work Breakdown Structure QMQuality Management Acronyms (cont)

19 Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 19 RRequirement RARequirements Analysis RDPRequirements Definition Process RESMResource Management RM&APReliability, Maintainability and Availability Plan RMPRisk Management Plan SSystem SAPSystems Analysis Process SBSSystem Breakdown Structure SCDRSystem Critical Design Review SDDSoftware Design Description SDPSoftware Development Plan SDPSolution Definition Process SESystems Engineering SEDSSystems Engineering Detailed Schedule SEMPSystems Engineering Master Plan SEMSSystems Engineering Master Schedule SFRSystem Functional Review SLCMSystem Life Cycle Management Process SOSSystem of Systems SOWStatement of Work SPCASystem Physical Configuration Audit SPDRSystem Preliminary Design Review SRStakeholder Requirements SRDSystem Requirements Document SRRSystem Requirements Review SRSSoftware Requirements Specification SSSystem Specification SSSoftware Specification SSCDRSubsystem Critical Design Review SSDDSystem/Subsystem Design Description SSFRSubsystem Functional Review SSPDRSubsystem Preliminary Design Review SSRSoftware Specification Review SSRRSubsystem Requirements Review SSSSystem/Subsystem Specification STCRSystem Test Completion Review STRRSystem Test Readiness Review Acronyms (cont)

20 Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 20 SupSupply SVSystem Verification SVSchedule Variance SVPSystem Verification Process SVRSystem Verification Review SWSoftware SWCDRSoftware Critical Design Review SWFCASoftware Functional Configuration Audit SWFRSoftware Functional Review SWPCASoftware Physical Configuration Audit SWPDRSoftware Preliminary Design Review SWRRSoftware Requirements Review SWTCRSoftware Test Completion Review SWTRRSoftware Te3st Readiness Review T PlnTest Plan T ProcTest Procedures T RptTest Report TCTest Completion TEMPTest and Evaluation Management Plan TLRTop Level Requirements TPTraining Plan TPTransition to Use Process TPMTechnical Performance Measurement TRTest Readiness TRMTechnical Review Manual TrnTraining TSCTheater Surface Combatants UUpdated USDUnder Secretary of Defense ValValidation VerVerification WBSWork Breakdown Structure Acronyms (cont)

21 Copyright 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation 21


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