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1 Stevens Institute of Technology INCOSE Spring 09Adaptation of Commercial and Defense Systems Requirements Engineering Processes for Streamlined Acquisition ProgramsL. Keith RobinettL-3 CommunicationsWilliam D. MillerStevens Institute of TechnologyYou can add a company logo to your front slide and to you Wrap-up or Question Slide at the end.April 4, 2009INCOSE Proprietary InformationLimited Distribution
2 TopicsRole and Value of RequirementsRequirements Engineering Methodsand Best PracticesRequirements Engineering Processfor Streamlined Acquisition Programs
4 NDIA Top Five Systems Engineering Issues Lack of awareness of the importance, value, timing, accountability, and organizational structure of Systems Engineering (SE) on programsAdequate, qualified resources are generally not available within Government and industry for allocation on major programsInsufficient SE tools and environments to effectively execute SE on programsRequirements definition, development and management is not applied consistently and effectivelyPoor initial program formulation.NDIA, 2003
5 NDIA Program Recommendations Increase awareness of SE importance in early acquisition phases. Realize that systems engineering is not a “tailor able” option for programs.Establish program to incentivize SE positions within the GovernmentResearch, identify and encourage use of SE tools for architecture design and developmentSynchronize directives for consistent requirements development and development approaches in the acquisition and requirements communitiesEmphasize use of SE practice in initial program formulation phases.NDIA, 2003
6 US DOD and NDIA Top Five Systems Engineering Issues Key systems engineering practices known to be effective are not consistently applied across all phases of the program life cycleInsufficient systems engineering is applied early in the program life cycle, compromising the foundation for initial requirements and architecture developmentRequirements are not always well-managed, including the effective translation from capabilities statements into executable requirements to achieve successful acquisition programsThe quantity and quality of systems engineering expertise is insufficient to meet the demands of the government and the defense industryCollaborative environments, including SE tools, are inadequate to effectively execute SE at the joint capability, system of systems (SoS), and system levels.NDIA, 2006
7 US DOD and NDIA Systems Engineering Recommendations Ensure effective SE practices are institutionalized into program planning/executionEnsure SE efforts are allocated schedule and effort in early program life cycle phasesEnsure systems engineering practices and resources are applied to define capabilities required to satisfy the needs of the warfighters.NDIA, 2006
8 Requirements Engineering Methods and Best Practices
9 Operational Requirements Where will the system be used?How will the system accomplish its mission objective?What are the critical system parameters to accomplish the mission?How are the various system components to be used?How effective or efficient must the system be in performing its mission?How long will the system be in use by the user?What environments will the system be expected to operate in an effective manner?DAU, 2001
10 Systems Engineering Process Standards in Common Use for Commercial & Defense SystemsISO/IEC Systems engineering – system life cycle processes (ISO, 2002)EIA-632 Processes for Engineering a System (EIA, 1999)IEEE IEEE Standard for Applications and Management of the Systems Engineering Process (IEEE, 2005).
13 Requirements Engineering Process for Streamlined Acquisition Programs
14 Streamlined Acquisition Programs Refers to defense programs for sustainment and/or upgrade of a previously delivered (legacy) systemBaseline system performance is typically known and well-understood for most legacy systemsIn many cases, requirements for legacy systems are not availableExtensively modified legacy systems bear little resemblance to the original systemStreamlined acquisition programs often add functionality to legacy systems via relatively short program schedule, referred to as a Quick Reaction Capability (QRC).
15 Streamlined Acquisition Program Activities Evolutionary acquisition achieved via incremental requirements determined from continual communication with customers and stakeholdersActivities required to upgrade a system (DAU, 2001):Benchmark the modified requirements for the upgrade and the entire systemPerform functional analysis and allocation on the requirementsAssess the system capability and performance before the upgradeIdentify and manage cost and risk factorsDevelop and evaluate alternatives for the modified systemPrototype the chosen alternativeVerify the improved performance and new functionality.
16 Streamlined Acquisition Program Approach Start with traditional SE Vee model (Mooz and Forsberg, 2006)Apply agile methodology to make SE processes as lean as possible to meet QRC timelinesRequirements principles for streamlined acquisition programs (Wiegers, 2001):Don’t dig your hole any deeperPractice new requirements engineering techniquesReconstruct requirements selectivelyCouple requirements development and testingFollow your change processInspect down the traceability chainStart now.Use agile methods within the Vee mode for new functionality, followed by traditional systems engineering methods for full system functionality
17 Agile Systems Engineering Agile systems engineering is defined as “rapid user and stakeholder requirements management, including concept selection, architecture development, system integration, verification, and validation in a development environment characterized by swift adaptation to changes, non-hierarchical baseline management, and a notable absence of low-value bureaucracy.”
19 Streamlined Acquisition Program Process Flow Proposed process flow for airborne ISR streamlined acquisition program
20 Streamlined Acquisition Process Flow Description Stakeholder or user needs for new system functionality are documented via Capability Requirements (CRs) that capture top-level needs and are used as basis for the derived product bid notes used to provide cost/scope estimates and product requirements used as input to the product development phaseFunctional test verifications provide a means to verify performance to requirements for individual Configuration Items (CIs)Product integration verifies the subsystem products meet the product requirements while capability integration verifies the new functionality at the system level meets the capability requirementsNew functionality is then integrated with the legacy functionality during mission systems integrationSystem verification continues during ground test and validation is performed during flight testAgile processes are utilized for the new development efforts thru capability integration efforts, while a traditional systems engineering process is used for mission system integration, ground test and flight testThe preference is for completion of capability integration for all new functionality before mission system integration begins, but that is not always feasible because some capabilities are completed before others.The risk is the system will not be mature enough for ground test, resulting in cost and schedule impactThe rule of thumb is to perform as much integration testing in the lab as possible because it becomes more difficult (and costly) to “integrate on the aircraft”.
22 Streamlined Acquisition Program Requirements Process Flow Customer/stakeholder involvement at each successive requirements phase
23 Streamlined Acquisition Program Requirements Process Flow Acronyms
24 Streamlined Acquisition Requirements Flow Description Requirements engineering begins with the concept and user requirements captured at a very high level in the Statement of Work (SOW), followed by generation of the capability requirements and the product requirementsThe interaction between each successive phase is bi-directional indicating the recursive activities performed as the system requirements are defined at each lower level and potential refinement of requirements at the preceding higher levelThere is customer involvement at each successive requirements phaseThe proposed systems engineering process satisfies the key characteristics of agile
25 Streamlined Acquisition Program Modified Vee Model
26 Hybrid Systems Engineering Vee Model For requirements allocation side of the Vee, the new capability requirements are assimilated into the legacy system task list and the capability requirements are decomposed into product requirements, followed by the product design and implementation phaseThe integration side of the Vee begins with Functional Test Verification (FTVs) to verify the implementation satisfies the product requirements where the FTVs are formal “selloff” events from developers to systems engineers and customersAgile methodology is utilized for the development/implementation/validation of the new functionality; multiple FTVs can be held for each Configuration Item (CI) as new functionality is added; multiple agile “loops” can be followed for each CI until the full functionality is implementedProduct integration is accomplished when the suite of CIs required for each specific capability are ready for product integration; following successful product verification, the full capability is integrated during capability integration; the process is repeated until the capability is completed integratedOnce all the new capabilities are integrated, the agile process is completed and is followed by an overall traditional systems engineering process to verify and validate the new capability with the existing legacy system functionalityThe mission system integration and ground test verify the full system capability against the system task listSystem performance is validated against the system task list during flight tests
27 ConclusionsSystems engineering processes for commercial and defense programs are similar as both are governed by standards in common use, i.e., ISO/IEC 15288, EIA-632 and IEEE 1220Detailed processes for requirements engineering include elicitation of customer/stakeholder requirements and metrics to assess quality of the requirements engineering processHybrid systems engineering process incorporating both agile and traditional systems engineering processes is used for streamlined acquisition programs.
28 Stevens Institute of Technology Questions?L. Keith RobinettL-3 CommunicationsWilliam D. MillerStevens Institute of Technology