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Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems1 Aerospace Systems Engineering By Dr. Sartuk KARASOY Middle East Technical University

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems1 Aerospace Systems Engineering By Dr. Sartuk KARASOY Middle East Technical University"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems1 Aerospace Systems Engineering By Dr. Sartuk KARASOY Middle East Technical University Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems The viewgraphs are mainly courtesy of Dr. Dennis Buede.

2 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems2 Engineering of Systems Broad perspective, not deep What must be done, how well it must be done, how it should be tested before what it is Clear focus on system's objectives Design: start with supersystem, migrate towards subsystems and components Integration: start with pieces and build to system in its real environment

3 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems3 System Life Cycle Concept Definition Identification of Need Refinement Preliminary System Design Detailed Configuration Item Design System Integration Production & Manufacturing Deployment Operation Retirement/Disposal Maintenance Time Training Figure 1.1

4 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems4 Cost Time 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Conceptual & Preliminary Design Detailed Design & Integration Construction or Production Use, Refinement & Disposal Cost Committed Cost Incurred Reason Why Engineering a System Needs To Be Done Well Early Figure 1.2

5 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems5 Definitions Engineering: discipline for transforming scientific concepts into cost-effective products through the use of analysis and judgment Engineering of a System: engineering discipline that develops, matches, and trades off requirements, functions, and alternate system resources to achieve a cost-effective, life-cycle balanced product based upon the needs of the stakeholders

6 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems6 Understand User Requirements, Develop System Concept and Validation Plan Develop System Performance Specification and System Validation Plan Expand Performance Specifications into CI “Design-to” Specifications and CI Verification Plan Evolve “Design-to” Specifications into “Build-to” Documentation and Inspection Plan Fab, Assemble and Code to “Build-to” Documentation Inspect “Build-to” Documentation Assemble CIs and Perform CI Verification to CI “Design-to” Specifications Integrate System and Perform System Verification to Performance Specifications Demonstrate and Validate System to User Validation Plan Decomposition and Definition Integration and Qualification Design Engineering Systems Engineering... Time Vee Model of Design and Integration Figure 1.3

7 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems7 Vee Model with Onion Peels Understand User Requirements, Develop System Concept and Validation Plan Develop System Performance Specification and System Validation Plan Expand Performance Specifications into CI “Design-to” Specifications and CI Verification Plan Evolve “Design-to” Specifications into “Build-to” Documentation and Inspection Plan Fab, Assemble and Code to “Build-to” Documentation Inspect “Build-to” Documentation Assemble CIs and Perform CI Verification to CI “Design-to” Specifications Integrate System and Perform System Verification to Performance Specifications Demonstrate and Validate System to User Validation Plan Decomposition and Definition Integration and Qualification Design Engineering Systems Engineering... Time Peels of the Onion

8 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems8 “g-g” Design Region for a Racecar (from [Milliken and Milliken, 1995]) Race Car Example of Requirements and Tests Operational Need or Mission Requirements - Partially Validated by Operational Test (Proven by Real-World Experience) System Level Requirements - Verified by System-Level Tests Component Level Requirements - Verified by Component- Level Tests Win the Indianapolis 500  Pretrial average speed of 215 mph  Average speed in the 500 of 190 mph  Top speed of X mph ·  Acceleratio n in all directions, g-g space  Average standard pit time of Y seconds  Engine horsepower of x Btu  Body’s drag coefficient of y  Range per tank of gas of z miles Figure 1.4

9 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems9 Table 1.3

10 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems10 Management SE Process Domain/ Stakeholders Technology (Engineering Disciplines) Modeling, Simulation, Analysis Expertise Required on the Systems Engineering Team Figure 1.5

11 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems11 Waterfall Model Systems Requirements Software Requirements Preliminary Design Detailed Design Coding and Debugging Integration and Testing Operations and Maintenance Figure 1.6

12 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems12 2nd Prototype 1st Prototype 3rd Prototype Operational Prototype Benchmarks Models Simulations Risk Analysis Evaluate Alternatives; Identify and Resolve Risks Progress through phases Cumulative Cost Determine Objectives, Alternatives, and Constraints Commitment Partition Review Requirements Plan Development Plan Integration and Test Plan Plan Next Phases Operational Concept Software Requirements Validation Software Product Design Design Validation and Verification Detailed Design Code Unit Test Integration and Test Acceptance Test Implementation Develop and Verify Next Level Product Spiral Model Figure 1.7

13 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems13 Designing for Concurrency & Risk Mitigation

14 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems14 Vee: Evolutionary & Incremental Development Incremental Development: Single Delivery Evolutionary Development Incremental Development: Incremental Delivery SE Models

15 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems15 Operational Concept SE Architectures Functional Architecture Physical Architecture Operational Architecture Interface Architecture Figure 1.9 (modified)

16 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems16 F-22 Weapon System VehicleTraining Support Avionics Systems Utilities & Subsystems Cockpit Systems Vehicle Management System Electronic Warfare Navigation, Identification Processing Controls & Displays Stores Management Inertial Reference System Radar Sample Physical Architecture Figure 1.10

17 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems17 Design & Integration System XYZ Weapon System Operational System Training System Retirement System Avionics Systems Utilities & Subsystems Cockpit Systems Vehicle Management System Electronic Warfare Navigation, Identification Processing Controls & Displays Stores Management Inertial Reference System Radar Manufacturing System Deployment System Refinement System Life-Cycle Physical Architecture Figure 1.11

18 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems18 Another View of the Design Process Figure 1.12

19 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems19 Typical Requirements Documents Table 1.4

20 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems20 Comparison of the Relative Cost to Fix Software in Various Life Cycle Phases [from Davis] Table 1.5

21 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems21 Development Period Figure 1.13

22 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems22 Period of Pre-Initial Operational Capability Figure 1.14

23 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems23 Period of Operational Use and Refinement Figure 1.15

24 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems24 Retirement Period Figure 1.16

25 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems25 Cycle Model Design and Integration Cycles 1. Core cycle: Realization of stakeholder needs, followed by requirements development, design, manufacturing and product delivery 2. Verification cycle: Analysis, simulation, prototyping, integration, and testing Management Cycles 3. Technologies and external resources cycle: Insertion of the appropriate technologies and resources into the systems engineering process 4. Controlling cycle: Configuration management of the design process and multiple product releases and updates 5. Strategic check cycle: Management assessment and approval of product development Figure 1.17

26 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems26 Develop Functional Architecture Design Physical Architecture Develop Operational Architecture Obtain Approval & Document Define the Design Problem Five Major Functions of Systems Engineering Design Figure 1.18

27 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems27 Higher Level Requirements & Constraints from Approved Baseline Define the problem, the system/segment/CI Boundary, & the objectives Develop the Op’l Concept for the Sys,Seg,CI under analysis Define the required behavior in a functional interaction diagram Define the required functional performance by quantitative analysis Allocate requirements to functions Define candidate physical solutions Evaluate candidate physical solutions & select best based upon objectives & requirements Allocate functions to Seg/CIs Develop interfaces between Seg/CIs Plan test & integration of Seg/CIs Obtain approval of boundary, objectives, concept of ops, requirements, physical solution, & test plan Document Seg/CI design as approved baseline for next lowest level yes no Define the Design Problem Develop Functional Architecture Develop Physical Architecture Develop Operational Architecture Obtain Approval & Document Detailed Functions of Systems Engineering Design Figure 1.19

28 Chapter 1- Overview of the Engineering of Systems28 Functions of the Systems Engineering Integration Process Verification Requirements and Constraints from Approved Baseline Inspect and test to verification requirements to prove readiness for integration with next assembly CI to be verified Deficiencies Integrate with next CI and repeat verification process Correctable Identify and fix correctable deficiencies Document uncorrectable deficiencies For uncorrectable deficiencies, confirm no impact to integration and get deviation approval from buyer Modify approved technical baseline to incorporate deviation Redesign Yes No Yes No Yes Figure 1.20


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