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Study of Biology.

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Presentation on theme: "Study of Biology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Study of Biology

2 What is Biology? Biology is the study of all living things
Living things are called organisms Organisms include bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, & animals

3 All Living Things Share Common Characteristics
Basic Unit is the Cell They Reproduce All Based On Universal Genetic Code (DNA) Grow & Develop

4 Common Characteristics
Obtain & Use Materials & Energy Respond To Their Environment Maintain A Stable Internal Environment AS A GROUP, Living Things Evolve, That Is They Change Over Time

5 Characteristics of Organisms
The Rafflesia, the worlds largest type of flower. Its nickname is “the corpse flower” because it emits an odor that  smells like decaying flesh. Finger Puppet Monkeys or Baby Pygmy Marmosets?

6 All Organisms are made of Cells

7 Cell Facts Cells are the smallest living unit of an organism
The simplest cells are called Prokaryotes These cells DO NOT have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles Bacteria are examples

8 More Cell Facts More complex cells are called Eukaryotes
These cells DO have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles Plants, animals, protists, & fungi are examples

9 Organisms Reproduce to Pass on their Genetic Traits

10 Two Types of Reproduction
Sexual Reproduction Involves 2 parents Egg fertilized (internally or externally) by sperm to make a ZYGOTE Offspring DIFFERENT from parents

11 Two Types of Reproduction
Asexual Reproduction Involves a single organism or cell Cell divides Offspring IDENTICAL to parent Examples: Budding, Gemmules, Fragmentation, Regeneration, Parthogenisis, Binary Fission, Cloning.

12 Cells Have a Genetic Code

13 Genetic Code DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) carries the genetic code for all organisms All organisms contain DNA DNA codes for the proteins that make up cells & do all the work

14 Organisms Grow & Develop

15 Growth & Development Organisms grow by producing MORE CELLS & by cell ENLARGEMENT Organisms develop as they mature into an adult organism

16 Cells Require Food & Energy

17 Food Requirements Autotrophs can make their own food
Photoautotrophs use sunlight to make food (photosynthesis) Chemoautotrophs use chemicals such as iron & sulfur as their energy

18 Food Requirements Heterotrophs can NOT make their own food
They must consume other organisms Herbivores eat plants Carnivores eat meat Omnivores eat plants & animals

19 Metabolism Sum of all the chemical reactions in an organism
All require energy Sunlight is the ultimate energy for life on Earth

20 Organisms Respond to Stimuli/Adaptation
Organisms Respond to stimuli (Temperature, Water, Food Supplies, etc.) In Order To Survive & Reproduce

21 Homeostasis Keeping The Internal Environment (Homeostasis) Of The Cell or Organism Within The Ranges Required For Life Stable internal conditions of pH, temperature, water balance, etc.

22 Living Things Evolve Groups Of Organisms (Not Individuals) Change Over Time In Order To Survive Within Changing Environments. Fossil records show changes in groups of organisms

23 Life is Organized on Several Levels

24 Levels Atoms Molecules Organelles Cells – life starts here Tissues
Organs System Organism


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