Presentation on theme: "1 Study of Biology. 2 What is Biology? Biology is the study of all living thingsBiology is the study of all living things Living things are called organisms."— Presentation transcript:
2 What is Biology? Biology is the study of all living thingsBiology is the study of all living things Living things are called organisms Living things are called organisms Organisms include bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, & animalsOrganisms include bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, & animals
3 All Living Things Share Common Characteristics 1.Basic Unit is the CELL, COMPOSED OF ONE OR MORE CELLS. 2.They Reproduce-All Based On Universal Genetic Code (DNA) 3.Grow & Develop
4 Common Characteristics 4. Respond To Their Environment- Maintain A Stable Internal Environment 5. Requiring,Obtaining & Using Materials & Energy
6 1. Basic Unit is the CELL, COMPOSED OF ONE OR MORE CELLS.
7 Facts About Cells Cells are the smallest living unit of an organismCells are the smallest living unit of an organism All cells contain living material called cytoplasmAll cells contain living material called cytoplasm All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane that controls what enters & leaves the cellAll cells are surrounded by a cell membrane that controls what enters & leaves the cell
8 More Cell Facts Cells are complex & highly organizedCells are complex & highly organized Cells have parts called organelles that do different jobsCells have parts called organelles that do different jobs e.g. Chloroplasts in plants make sugars e.g. Chloroplasts in plants make sugars
9 More Cell Facts The simplest cells are called ProkaryotesThe simplest cells are called Prokaryotes These cells DO NOT have a nucleus or membrane-bound organellesThese cells DO NOT have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles Bacteria are examplesBacteria are examples
10 More Cell Facts More complex cells are called EukaryotesMore complex cells are called Eukaryotes These cells DO have a nucleus and membrane- bound organellesThese cells DO have a nucleus and membrane- bound organelles Plants, animals, protists, & fungi are examplesPlants, animals, protists, & fungi are examples
11 Organisms are Grouped by their Number of Cells Unicellular Organisms Unicellular Organisms –Living Organism Made Up Of One Cell Multicellular Organisms Multicellular Organisms –Living Organism Made Up Of Many, Specialized Cells
12 2. They Reproduce-passing on their traits Based On Universal Genetic Code (DNA)
13 Two Types of Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Involves a TWO PARENTS PRODUCING A SINGLE or MULTIPLE OFFSPRING
14 Two Types of Reproduction Asexual ReproductionAsexual Reproduction Involves a single organism or cellInvolves a single organism or cell Cell dividesCell divides Offspring IDENTICAL to parentOffspring IDENTICAL to parent
16 Genetic Code DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) carries the genetic code for all organismsDNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) carries the genetic code for all organisms All organisms contain DNAAll organisms contain DNA DNA codes for the proteins that make up cells & do all the workDNA codes for the proteins that make up cells & do all the work
17 3. Organisms Respond to Stimuli Organisms Respond to stimuli (Temperature, Water, Food Supplies, etc.) In Order To Survive & ReproduceOrganisms Respond to stimuli (Temperature, Water, Food Supplies, etc.) In Order To Survive & Reproduce
18 Homeostasis Homeostasis Keeping The Internal Environment (Homeostasis) Of The Cell or Organism Within The Ranges Required For LifeKeeping The Internal Environment (Homeostasis) Of The Cell or Organism Within The Ranges Required For Life Stable internal conditions of pH, temperature, water balance, etc.Stable internal conditions of pH, temperature, water balance, etc.
20 Growth & Development Organisms grow by producing MORE CELLS & by cell ENLARGEMENTOrganisms grow by producing MORE CELLS & by cell ENLARGEMENT Organisms develop as they mature into an adult organismOrganisms develop as they mature into an adult organism
22 Food Requirements Autotrophs can make their own foodAutotrophs can make their own food Photoautotrophs use sunlight to make food (photosynthesis)Photoautotrophs use sunlight to make food (photosynthesis) Chemoautotrophs use chemicals such as iron & sulfur as their energyChemoautotrophs use chemicals such as iron & sulfur as their energy
23 Food Requirements Heterotrophs can NOT make their own foodHeterotrophs can NOT make their own food They must consume other organismsThey must consume other organisms Herbivores eat plantsHerbivores eat plants Carnivores eat meatCarnivores eat meat Omnivores eat plants & animalsOmnivores eat plants & animals
24 Metabolism Sum of all the chemical reactions in an organismSum of all the chemical reactions in an organism All require energyAll require energy Sunlight is the ultimate energy for life on EarthSunlight is the ultimate energy for life on Earth
25 Metabolism Cellular RespirationCellular Respiration –Cells releasing the chemical energy stored in foods 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall What are the levels of organization of living things?
28 Levels of Organization of Living Things AtomsAtoms MoleculesMolecules OrganellesOrganelles Cells – life starts hereCells – life starts here TissuesTissues OrgansOrgans SystemSystem OrganismOrganism
Atoms A unit of matter, the smallest unit of an element, having all the characteristics of that element and consisting of a dense, central, positively charged nucleus surrounded by a system of electrons.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Branches of Biology Molecules Groups of atoms; smallest unit of most chemical compounds Water DNA
Organelles Specialized structure found in a cell that has a specific function Ex. mitochonria
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Branches of Biology Cells Smallest functional unit of life Nerve cell
Tissue Group of cells organized together that are performing together for a specific function. Ex. nerve tissue
Organs Groups of tissues that are working together for a specific function Ex. brain
Organ System Group of organs that are working together to make one of the body systems. Ex. Nervous system
Branches of Biology Organism Individual living thing Bison
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Branches of Biology Population Group of organisms of one type that live in the same area Bison herd
Branches of Biology Community Populations that live together in a defined area Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass
Branches of Biology Ecosystem Community and its nonliving surroundings Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass, stream, rocks, air
BIOME Some parts of the earth have more or less the same kind of abiotic and biotic factors spread over a large area creating a typical ecosystem over that area. Such major ecosystems are termed as biomes.
Biosphere The part of Earth that contains all ecosystems. From the broadest biophysiological point of view, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. biophysiologicalecologicallithospherehydrosphere atmosphere