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Study of Biology.

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Presentation on theme: "Study of Biology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Study of Biology

2 What is Biology? Biology is the study of all living things
Living things are called organisms Organisms include bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, & animals

3 All Living Things Share Common Characteristics
Basic Unit is the Cell They Reproduce All Based On Universal Genetic Code (DNA) Grow & Develop

4 Common Characteristics
Obtain & Use Materials & Energy Respond To Their Environment Maintain A Stable Internal Environment AS A GROUP, Living Things Evolve, That Is They Change Over Time

5 Characteristics of Organisms

6 All Organisms are made of Cells

7 Facts About Cells Cells are the smallest living unit of an organism
All cells contain living material called cytoplasm All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane that controls what enters & leaves the cell

8 More Cell Facts Cells are complex & highly organized
Cells have parts called organelles that do different jobs e.g. Chloroplasts in plants make sugars

9 More Cell Facts The simplest cells are called Prokaryotes
These cells DO NOT have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles Bacteria are examples

10 More Cell Facts More complex cells are called Eukaryotes
These cells DO have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles Plants, animals, protists, & fungi are examples

11 Organisms are Grouped by their Number of Cells
Unicellular Organisms Living Organism Made Up Of One Cell Multicellular Organisms Living Organism Made Up Of Many, Specialized Cells

12 Organisms Reproduce to Pass on their Genetic Traits

13 Two Types of Reproduction
Sexual Reproduction Involves 2 parents Egg fertilized by sperm to make a ZYGOTE Offspring DIFFERENT from parents

14 Two Types of Reproduction
Asexual Reproduction Involves a single organism or cell Cell divides Offspring IDENTICAL to parent

15 Cells Have a Genetic Code

16 Genetic Code DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) carries the genetic code for all organisms All organisms contain DNA DNA codes for the proteins that make up cells & do all the work

17 Organisms Grow & Develop

18 Growth & Development Organisms grow by producing MORE CELLS & by cell ENLARGEMENT Organisms develop as they mature into an adult organism

19 Cells Require Food & Energy

20 Food Requirements Autotrophs can make their own food
Photoautotrophs use sunlight to make food (photosynthesis) Chemoautotrophs use chemicals such as iron & sulfur as their energy

21 Food Requirements Heterotrophs can NOT make their own food
They must consume other organisms Herbivores eat plants Carnivores eat meat Omnivores eat plants & animals

22 Metabolism Sum of all the chemical reactions in an organism
All require energy Sunlight is the ultimate energy for life on Earth

23 Metabolism Cellular Respiration
Cells releasing the chemical energy stored in foods 6O2 + C6H12O CO2 + 6H2O

24 Organisms Respond to Stimuli
Organisms Respond to stimuli (Temperature, Water, Food Supplies, etc.) In Order To Survive & Reproduce

25 Homeostasis Keeping The Internal Environment (Homeostasis) Of The Cell or Organism Within The Ranges Required For Life Stable internal conditions of pH, temperature, water balance, etc.

26 Living Things Evolve Groups Of Organisms (Not Individuals) Change Over Time In Order To Survive Within Changing Environments. Fossil records show changes in groups of organisms

27 Life is Organized on Several Levels

28 Levels Atoms Molecules Organelles Cells – life starts here Tissues
Organs System Organism

29 Levels Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere


31 The End!!! Thank you for your attention. Write a 2-paragraph (10 sentences) summary of your understanding of the topic.


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