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What does it mean to be Taoist or a follower of Confucius? Do Now: How would you describe Winnie the Pooh and his friends? Which character would you most want to be like and why? NY State Standard 2 Common Core RS 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and WS 1, 2
While Eyore frets And piglet hesitates And rabbit calculates And owl pontificates Pooh just is. - The Tao of Pooh by Benjamin Hoff
I Who were Laozi and Confucius? A) After the fall of the Zhou Dynasty in China in 475 BCE, China entered the Warring States Period; a time of constant war between competing states. This period lasted until 221 BCE when the Qin conquered the other warring states and once again united China. B) During this time, two great Chinese philosophers emerged; Confucius and Laozi. They developed different philosophies as to how to restore peace, unity, and harmony to China. On the left is Laozi and on the right is Confucius
Warring States Era, China 403 – 221 BCE
II Taoism “the way” A) Laozi, the founder of Taoism in the 6 th century BCE, wrote The Way of Virtue, a sacred text of Taoism. B) Taoist Beliefs: 1. “Those who know the Tao do not speak of it. Those who speak of it do not know it.” *Taoism needs to be experienced 2. Ch'i literally means "air" or "breath," but as a concept it refers to the energy flow or life force that is said to pervade all things. The quality, quantity and balance of Ch'i is believed to be essential to maintaining health and achieving a long life. 3. It is virtuous to avoid conflict. Government should be limited. 4. Taoism is polytheistic. 5. Life and death are merely two aspects of reality. Death is simply a transformation from being to non-being; from yang to yin.
Taoism Continued… Most of the time, the yin- yang symbol represents two opposing and complementary forces that make up all phenomena of life.
Taoism Continued… C) Taoist Practices: 1. Tai Chi is a form of moving meditation 2. Taoists worship at shrines (sacred spaces) and temples. These are often found outdoors due to their deep respect for nature. 3. The Lantern Festival is a Taoist holiday which is celebrated during the first full moon of the year.
Taoist Lantern Festival
III Confucianism A) Confucius (551 - 479 BCE) is usually considered to be the most important and influential Chinese philosopher. His teachings were written down in the Analects by his students. He is NOT worshipped as a god. His teachings greatly influenced Chinese culture. B) Confucius believed in filial piety; respect must be given to your elders and ancestors. SUPERIORINFERIOR RulerRuled HusbandWife ParentChild Elder brotherYounger Brother Friend C) Confucius believed there are 5 key relationships in a society. Only friends are equals. However, both superiors and inferiors must show respect to the other, in order to keep harmony.
D) Confucius Day is celebrated in China on September 29 th.
Confucianism Continued… Confucianism was made the official state philosophy under the Han Dynasty in 202 BCE. In order to work in any level of the government bureaucracy, you had to pass a civil service exam which was based on Confucianism!
Key Vocabulary Confucianism Confucius Day Filial Piety Five Key Relationships of Confucius Lantern Festival Laozi Philosopher Polytheistic The Analects The Way of Virtue Shrines Tai Chi Taoism Warring States Era Fill in your religion chart for Taoism and Confucianism for HW!
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