Presentation on theme: "ES – NC Landforms, Weather, and Climate. NC Landforms."— Presentation transcript:
ES – NC Landforms, Weather, and Climate
Major Geographic Regions Coastal Plain – Two main subregions: Outer Coastal Plain Inner Coastal Plain (includes Sandhills) Piedmont Mountains
Coastal Plains Features of the Coastal Plain –Barrier Islands –Coastal Plain Terraces –Pocosins –Carolina Bays
Outer Banks (Barrier Islands)
Coastal Plain Terraces
Oceanic Invasion of the South
The Formation of a Pocosin
A Typical Pocosin Profile
Piedmont Drained by a number of rivers, including the Dan, Tar, Neuse, Cape Fear, Yadkin, and Catawba
Mountains Main chains of mountain ranges running from northeast to southwest Other chains run between the main chains, creating coves, basins, and valleys.
Stream in the Blue Ridge Mountains
Great Smoky Mountains
Thunder Hill in the Blue Ridge Mountains
NC Rivers and Lakes
Climatic Considerations Geographic Considerations –Air Masses –Elevation –Bodies of Water Climatic Concerns –Temperature –Precipitation –Sunshine –Frost
Air Masses Affecting North Carolina
Types of Precipitation Orographic Precipitation Convectional Precipitation Cyclonic Precipitation
Orographic Precipitation Occurs in the mountains and western piedmont Tropical air mass reaches the mountains and cools adiabatically as it rises along the mountains. When it reaches the dew point (100% humidity), it results in rain or snow.
Adiabatic Adiabatic: describing a process in which there is no transfer of heat into or out of the system in question. Saturation-adiabatic process: an adiabatic process in which the air is maintained at saturation by the evaporation or condensation of water substance, the latent heat being supplied by or to the air respectively; the ascent of cloudy air, for example, is often assumed to be such a process.
Convectional Precipitation Primarily a warm weather phenomenaisolated summer thunderstorms. –Most summer rain comes from convectional precipitation. The heat of day on the air and land heats an already warm maritime tropical air mass. As the heated and moist air rises, it cools and its water vapor turns into rain.
Cyclonic Precipitation Conventional low pressure storms. Generally move west to east across the United States. Generally fall, winter and spring in North Carolina. Warm fronts tend to provide light, prolonged precipitation. Cold fronts tend to provide brief, heavy showers.
Exceptional Weather Tornados Hurricanes
Climatic Measures Average Temperatures Frost-Free Seasons Average Annual Rainfall While North Carolina is located in a warm temperate zone, its diverse regions can experience a great variety of weather conditions. While locations in the mountains may see average temperatures of 30 degrees Fahrenheit in January and 65 degrees Fahrenheit in August, locations in the coastal plains can often experience January averages in the mid 40's and August averages in the 90's. The state averages 44 inches of rainfall each year, and 5 inches of snow.
NC Climate Summary JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Average Max. Temperature (F) Average Min. Temperature (F) Average Total Precipitation (in.) Average Total SnowFall (in.) Average Snow Depth (in.) JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Average Max. Temperature (F) Average Min. Temperature (F) Average Total Precipitation (in.) Hickory Climate Summary
Annual Rainfall in NC
Annual Seasonal Snowfall in NC
Normal Mean Temperature for January in NC
Average Seasonal Hours of Sunlight in NC The number of hours during which the sun is visible (black line), with various degrees of daylight, twilight, and night, indicated by the color bands. From bottom (most yellow) to top (most gray): full daylight, solar twilight (sun is visible but less than 6° from the horizon), civil twilight (sun is not visible but is less than 6° below the horizon), nautical twilight (sun is between 6° and 12° below the horizon), astronomical twilight (sun is between 12° and 18° below the horizon), and full night.
Daily Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Savings Time The sunrise and sunset times over the course of the year 2012 (black lines), with twilights (solar, civil, nautical, and astronomical) indicated by the color bands from yellow to gray. The transitions to and from daylight savings time are indicated by the "DST" labels.
Median Cloud Cover in NC The median daily cloud cover (black line) with percentile bands (inner band from 40th to 60th percentile, outer band from 25th to 75th percentile).
Average Relative Humidity in NC The average daily high (blue) and low (brown) relative humidity with percentile bands (inner bands from 25th to 75th percentile, outer bands from 10th to 90th percentile).
Average Dew Point in NC The daily average low (blue) and high (red) dew point with percentile bands (inner band from 25th to 75th percentile, outer band from 10th to 90th percentile).
Average Wind Speed in NC The average daily minimum (red), maximum (green), and average (black) wind speed with percentile bands (inner band from 25th to 75th percentile, outer band from 10th to 90th percentile).
Human Effects on Geography In the 1800s (and earlier) eastern North Carolina's economy affected the landscape: –Naval Storesuse of regions longleaf pine for timber and tar: Some barrier island forests harvested to the point of deforestation. Parts of the coastal plains destroyed by insect infestations, burnings, windstorms, etc., once trees were cut with Vs to drain sap for tar. –Draining of swamps: Drained for farming and rice growing. Draining lowered water levels in rivers and allowed for major forest fires.
Affects of Climate on History In 1998, scientists discovered by measuring tree rings in bald cypresses that in the late 16 th and early 17 th centuries, two major droughts occurred: – the worst drought in the last 800 years. – the driest seven-year period in the last 800 years