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Earth’s Weather and Climate

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Presentation on theme: "Earth’s Weather and Climate"— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth’s Weather and Climate

2 Our Weather and Climate
The condition of the atmosphere at a certain time and place. Changes daily Climate The overall weather patterns of an area Changes occur over long periods of geologic time

3 Solar Energy Earth receives energy from the sun by radiation.
Radiation is the transfer of energy as electromagnetic waves. The suns radiation enters Earth as Visible light Infrared waves - heat Ultraviolet radiation

4 Solar Energy from the Sun
Energy from the sun is transferred around Earth by radiation and convection.

5 Energy from the sun creates convection currents in the atmosphere and oceans

6 Convection Currents Convection is the transfer of thermal energy by the circulation of liquids and gases. Warm air or water rises It’s less dense Cool air or water sinks It’s more dense

7 Ocean Currents Warm water rises and cooler water sinks

8 Wind and Ocean Currents
Influence Earth’s Weather and Climate

9 Temperature of Our Oceans
Ocean water cools down and warms up much slower than land or air. Oceans keep temperatures for nearby land much more moderate. Temperatures are less extreme Doesn’t get too cold or too hot This keeps coastal areas cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter.

10 Land and Sea Breezes Winds caused by uneven heating of air above ocean water and land. Land heats up and cools down much faster than ocean water. Land gets much hotter during the day and much cooler at night.

11 Coastal Areas experience Sea Breezes during the day

12 Coastal Areas also Experience Land Breezes at Night

13 Sea Breezes by Day Land Breezes by Night

14 Valley and Mountain Breezes

15 Ocean Currents Stream like movements of water in oceans
Heat is transferred around the world by ocean currents through convection. Over ½ the heat that reaches the Earth from the sun is absorbed by the oceans surface.

16 Surface Currents Currents at or near the surface of the ocean
Caused by WINDS! Affect weather and climate for coastal regions around the world. Warm currents originate at the Equator Cold currents originate at the Poles

17 Deep Water Currents Deep currents far below the surface of the ocean.
Water is cold and salty which makes it more dense and sinks to the ocean floor.

18 Currents Trade Places Water from deep currents get warmer as they reach the equator and starts to rise. Water from surface currents get colder as they reach the poles and starts to sink Heat is transferred by convection currents, in our oceans. Warm water rises and cold water sinks

19 Ocean Water Currents

20 Changes in Ocean Currents
El Nino – the warming of water in the Pacific Ocean La Nina – the cooling of water in the Pacific Ocean

21 Causes Changes in Weather
El Nino Weather Rain and flooding along the Pacific Coast Tornadoes and thunderstorms in South US Fewer than normal hurricanes in the Atlantic La Nina Weather Snow and rain on the west coast Cold weather in Alaska Warm weather in the rest of the USA Drought in the south west More hurricanes in the Atlantic

22 Warm air rises and cool air sinks
Wind currents Warm air rises and cool air sinks

23 Wind Currents Created by differences in Air pressure
Caused by unequal heating of the Earth from the sun Equator – Warm, less dense air Low air pressure Poles – Cold, more dense air High air pressure

24 Atmospheric/Air Pressure
The force of the air pushing on any surface. Measured in Millibars Decreases with altitude Changes with air temperatures Creates wind!

25 Barometer – Measures Air Pressure

26 Air Pressure Weather Map Isobars – Lines on a weather map that show equal Atmospheric Pressure
H = High Pressure L = Low Pressure

27 Convection Cells of Air Create Winds


29 Jet Streams High-speed winds that can reach up to
500 km/hour high up in the sky.

30 Wind Speed Measured by an anemometer Digital

31 Weather Map showing Isobars and Windspeed/Direction

32 Air Masses – large bodies of air that have similar temperature and moisture throughout

33 Types of Air Masses Continental - form over land; dry
Maritime - form over water; wet and Tropical - form in a tropical region; warm Polar – form in a polar region; cold

34 Air Masses mP – Maritime Polar Cold and Wet
cP – Continental Polar Cold and dry mT – Maritime Tropical Warm and Wet cT – Continental Tropical Warm and Dry

35 Air Masses

36 Fronts Boundary that forms between two different air masses
4 types of fronts: Cold, Warm, Occluded, Stationary

37 Cold Front When a cold air mass replaces a warm air mass
Produces colder temperatures and more precipitation

38 Warm Front When a warm air mass replaces a cold air mass.
Creates warmer temperatures and some precipitation.

39 Weather Map

40 The amount of moisture or water vapor in the air.
Humidity The amount of moisture or water vapor in the air.

41 Relative Humidity Relative Humidity – the amount of moisture the air contains compared with the maximum amount it can hold at a particular temperature.

42 Measuring Humidity Psychrometer Hygrometer Measures Relative Humidity
Measures Humidity Psychrometer

43 Severe Weather Weather that can cause property damage and even death.
Thunderstorms Tornadoes Hurricanes

44 Thunderstorms Intense weather systems that produce strong winds, heavy rain, lightning and thunder Occur when warm, moist air rises rapidly in an unstable atmosphere. Can cause high winds, hail, flash floods, and tornadoes.

45 Tornadoes A rotating column of air that has high wind speeds and low central pressure that touches the ground. Starts as a funnel cloud formed from a cumulonimbus cloud Produced by thunderstorms 75% occur in the US

46 Wall Cloud

47 Wall Cloud – Take Cover

48 Hurricanes Most powerful storms on Earth
Form in warm ocean waters by the equator Fueled by warm water and moist air Die out over cold water and land

49 Hurricanes, Typhoons, Cyclones Form in warm ocean waters by the equator

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