2 Our Weather and Climate The condition of the atmosphere at a certain time and place.Changes dailyClimateThe overall weather patterns of an areaChanges occur over long periods of geologic time
3 Solar Energy Earth receives energy from the sun by radiation. Radiation is the transfer of energy as electromagnetic waves.The suns radiation enters Earth asVisible lightInfrared waves - heatUltraviolet radiation
4 Solar Energy from the Sun Energy from the sun is transferred around Earth by radiation and convection.
5 Energy from the sun creates convection currents in the atmosphere and oceans
6 Convection CurrentsConvection is the transfer of thermal energy by the circulation of liquids and gases.Warm air or water risesIt’s less denseCool air or water sinksIt’s more dense
7 Ocean Currents Warm water rises and cooler water sinks
8 Wind and Ocean Currents Influence Earth’s Weather and Climate
9 Temperature of Our Oceans Ocean water cools down and warms up much slower than land or air.Oceans keep temperatures for nearby land much more moderate.Temperatures are less extremeDoesn’t get too cold or too hotThis keeps coastal areas cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter.
10 Land and Sea BreezesWinds caused by uneven heating of air above ocean water and land.Land heats up and cools down much faster than ocean water.Land gets much hotter during the day and much cooler at night.
11 Coastal Areas experience Sea Breezes during the day
12 Coastal Areas also Experience Land Breezes at Night
15 Ocean Currents Stream like movements of water in oceans Heat is transferred around the world by ocean currents through convection.Over ½ the heat that reaches the Earth from the sun is absorbed by the oceans surface.
16 Surface Currents Currents at or near the surface of the ocean Caused by WINDS!Affect weather and climate for coastal regions around the world.Warm currents originate at the EquatorCold currents originate at the Poles
17 Deep Water Currents Deep currents far below the surface of the ocean. Water is cold and salty which makes it more dense and sinks to the ocean floor.
18 Currents Trade PlacesWater from deep currents get warmer as they reach the equator and starts to rise.Water from surface currents get colder as they reach the poles and starts to sinkHeat is transferred by convection currents, in our oceans. Warm water rises and cold water sinks
20 Changes in Ocean Currents El Nino – the warming of waterin the Pacific OceanLa Nina – the cooling of waterin the Pacific Ocean
21 Causes Changes in Weather El Nino WeatherRain and flooding along the Pacific CoastTornadoes and thunderstorms in South USFewer than normal hurricanes in the AtlanticLa Nina WeatherSnow and rain on the west coastCold weather in AlaskaWarm weather in the rest of the USADrought in the south westMore hurricanes in the Atlantic
22 Warm air rises and cool air sinks Wind currentsWarm air rises and cool air sinks
23 Wind Currents Created by differences in Air pressure Caused by unequal heating of the Earth from the sunEquator – Warm, less dense airLow air pressurePoles – Cold, more dense airHigh air pressure
24 Atmospheric/Air Pressure The force of the air pushing on any surface.Measured in MillibarsDecreases with altitudeChanges with air temperaturesCreates wind!
43 Severe Weather Weather that can cause property damage and even death. ThunderstormsTornadoesHurricanes
44 ThunderstormsIntense weather systems that produce strong winds, heavy rain, lightning and thunderOccur when warm, moist air rises rapidly in an unstable atmosphere.Can cause high winds, hail, flash floods, and tornadoes.
45 TornadoesA rotating column of air that has high wind speeds and low central pressure that touches the ground.Starts as a funnel cloud formed from a cumulonimbus cloudProduced by thunderstorms75% occur in the US