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Ch. 3 “Climate and Vegetation”

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 3 “Climate and Vegetation”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 3 “Climate and Vegetation”

2 Ch. 3.1 “Seasons and Weather”

3 Seasons Seasons are determined by two factors: Earths tilt
Earths revolution around the sun Revolution meaning? One revolution of the earth is what unit of measure?

4 Solstice: Equinox: Summer marks longest day
Winter marks the shortest day Equinox: Both day and night are equal all over world Marks the beginning of spring and fall Note that the northern part of the earth is tilted toward the sun in the summer time. Solstices also mark the beginning of their respective seasons.

5 Weather Weather: condition of atmosphere at a specific time.
Climate: atmospheric condition over a period of time.

6 Weather Factors 1. cloud cover 2. landforms & bodies of water
3. elevation 4. air movement 5. water vapor Precipitation: falling water in the form of rain or snow (3 types) Convectional- rain forest Orographic- coastal Frontal- great plains

7 Weather Extremes 5 Different extremes Hurricanes Tornados Blizzards
Droughts Floods

8 Hurricane/Typhoons Storms that form over warm ocean waters.
Take days to develop and are easy to track This means that there is adequate advanced warning.

9 Tornados Powerful, funnel shaped, column of spiraling air.
Come from powerful thunderstorm. Form quickly with little warning Why would their be a bolt of lightning next to a tornado?

10 Blizzards Heavy snow storm with winds of 35+ mph.
Great Lakes area is snowbelt Avg. 37 ½ feet per year.

11 Droughts A long period of time without rain or minimum rainfall
Results in crop failures and reduces levels of water storage. In severe cases can cause famine. What is famine?

12 Floods Occur when: river banks can not hold river water
or the ground becomes saturated during a heavy storm.

13 Ch. 3.2 “Climate” 5 major factors that influence climate:
Wind currents Ocean currents Latitude Elevation Topography

14 1. Wind Currents Convection: distribution of sun heated atmosphere through the motion of air 2 types of air: Warm air = Low pressure zone Cold air = High pressure zone Transfer of air from H L zones creates wind.

15 2. Ocean Currents Like rivers in the ocean:
Warm water from the equator to the poles Cold water from the poles to the equator

16 3. Zones of Latitude 3 Zones: Low/Tropical Mid/Temperate High/Polar

17 4. Elevation As altitude increases the temp. drops 3.5 degrees per 1000 ft. Climates above 12,000 ft. become like arctic areas.

18 5. Topography Landforms like mountains, affect climate
Rain shadow is an example:

19 Changes in Climate Are either due to: 2. Human Activities
1. Natural Causes

20 El Nino Warming of ocean waters off the west coast of S. America
~ Warming of ocean waters off the west coast of S. America Pushes warm waters and heavy rains toward Americas

21 Greenhouse Effect Layer of gasses created by the burning of fossil fuels, traps heated air.

22 Ch. 3.3 “World Climate Regions”
Generalizations of typical weather conditions found in certain areas of the earth 2 biggest factors in determining regions: Temp. Precipitation

23 12 Types of climate: 1. Tropical Wet: 2. Tropical wet and dry:
Little temp. variation, typically hot, (around 80 degrees) 2. Tropical wet and dry: Has both a wet (warm) and dry (cold) seasons 3. Semiarid: Little precip. about 16 in. per year.

24 4. Desert: 5. Mediterranean: 6. Marine west coast:
Categorized by amount of rainfall (lack of moisture), not landforms 5. Mediterranean: Dry hot summers, winters cool and rainy 6. Marine west coast: Cloudy, foggy and damp and located close to the ocean 7. Humid subtropical: Summers hot and humid, winters are mild to cool 8. Humid continental: Great variety in temp. and precipitation.

25 9. Subarctic: 10. Tundra: 11. Ice Cap: 12. Highlands:
Huge temp. variation between summer and winter 10. Tundra: Flat treeless land almost exclusively in Northern Hemisphere Permafrost: soil is constantly frozen 11. Ice Cap: Snow, ice, permanently frozen temp. 12. Highlands: Climate varies with lat., elevation, topography

26 Ch. 3.4 “Soils and Vegetation”
Soil: weathered rock, humus, air, water that covers the ground Depth, texture, humus content of soil determine the type of vegetation that can be supported Temp and precipitation also influence

27 Vegetation Regions Ecosystem: Interdependent community of plants and animals Biome: ecosystem of a region 4 Types of Biomes: Forest Grassland Desert Tundra

28 1. Forestlands Two Types: 2. Coniferous Deciduous Needleleaf Broadleaf
ie. pine Deciduous Broadleaf ie. cottonwood The Rain forest is located in the tropical zone; covered with broadleaf trees.

29 2. Grasslands Mostly flat dotted with a few trees. Two types:
1. Savanna Steppe or Praire Northern Hemisphere

30 3. Desert Characterized by plants that can conserve water and withstand heat like: Cactus Sagebrush

31 4. Tundra Characterized by plants that tolerate the cold and dry conditions by hugging the ground like: Moss Lichen

32 Human Impact on Environment
Dams Crops

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