3Seasons Seasons are determined by two factors: Earths tilt Earths revolution around the sunRevolution meaning?One revolution of the earth is what unit of measure?
4Solstice: Equinox: Summer marks longest day Winter marks the shortest dayEquinox:Both day and night are equal all over worldMarks the beginning of spring and fallNote that the northern part of the earth is tilted toward the sun in the summer time.Solstices also mark the beginning of their respective seasons.
5Weather Weather: condition of atmosphere at a specific time. Climate: atmospheric condition over a period of time.
6Weather Factors 1. cloud cover 2. landforms & bodies of water 3. elevation4. air movement5. water vaporPrecipitation: falling water in the form of rain or snow (3 types)Convectional- rain forestOrographic- coastalFrontal- great plains
7Weather Extremes 5 Different extremes Hurricanes Tornados Blizzards DroughtsFloods
8Hurricane/Typhoons Storms that form over warm ocean waters. Take days to develop and are easy to trackThis means that there is adequate advanced warning.
9Tornados Powerful, funnel shaped, column of spiraling air. Come from powerful thunderstorm.Form quickly with little warningWhy would their be a bolt of lightning next to a tornado?
10Blizzards Heavy snow storm with winds of 35+ mph. Great Lakes area is snowbeltAvg. 37 ½ feet per year.
11Droughts A long period of time without rain or minimum rainfall Results in crop failures and reduces levels of water storage.In severe cases can cause famine.What is famine?
12Floods Occur when: river banks can not hold river water or the ground becomes saturated during a heavy storm.
13Ch. 3.2 “Climate” 5 major factors that influence climate: Wind currentsOcean currentsLatitudeElevationTopography
141. Wind CurrentsConvection: distribution of sun heated atmosphere through the motion of air2 types of air:Warm air = Low pressure zoneCold air = High pressure zoneTransfer of air fromH L zones creates wind.
152. Ocean Currents Like rivers in the ocean: Warm water from the equator to the polesCold water from the poles to the equator
163. Zones of Latitude3 Zones:Low/TropicalMid/TemperateHigh/Polar
174. ElevationAs altitude increases the temp. drops 3.5 degrees per 1000 ft.Climates above 12,000 ft. become like arctic areas.
185. Topography Landforms like mountains, affect climate Rain shadow is an example:
19Changes in Climate Are either due to: 2. Human Activities 1. Natural Causes
20El Nino Warming of ocean waters off the west coast of S. America ~Warming of ocean waters off the west coast of S. AmericaPushes warm waters and heavy rains toward Americas
21Greenhouse EffectLayer of gasses created by the burning of fossil fuels, traps heated air.
22Ch. 3.3 “World Climate Regions” Generalizations of typical weather conditions found in certain areas of the earth2 biggest factors in determining regions:Temp.Precipitation
2312 Types of climate: 1. Tropical Wet: 2. Tropical wet and dry: Little temp. variation, typically hot, (around 80 degrees)2. Tropical wet and dry:Has both a wet (warm) and dry (cold) seasons3. Semiarid:Little precip. about 16 in. per year.
244. Desert: 5. Mediterranean: 6. Marine west coast: Categorized by amount of rainfall (lack of moisture), not landforms5. Mediterranean:Dry hot summers, winters cool and rainy6. Marine west coast:Cloudy, foggy and damp and located close to the ocean7. Humid subtropical:Summers hot and humid, winters are mild to cool8. Humid continental:Great variety in temp. and precipitation.
259. Subarctic: 10. Tundra: 11. Ice Cap: 12. Highlands: Huge temp. variation between summer and winter10. Tundra:Flat treeless land almost exclusively in Northern HemispherePermafrost: soil is constantly frozen11. Ice Cap:Snow, ice, permanently frozen temp.12. Highlands:Climate varies with lat., elevation, topography
26Ch. 3.4 “Soils and Vegetation” Soil: weathered rock, humus, air, water that covers the groundDepth, texture, humus content of soil determine the type of vegetation that can be supportedTemp and precipitation also influence
27Vegetation RegionsEcosystem: Interdependent community of plants and animalsBiome: ecosystem of a region4 Types of Biomes:ForestGrasslandDesertTundra
281. Forestlands Two Types: 2. Coniferous Deciduous Needleleaf Broadleaf ie. pineDeciduousBroadleafie. cottonwoodThe Rain forest is located in the tropical zone; covered with broadleaf trees.
292. Grasslands Mostly flat dotted with a few trees. Two types: 1. SavannaSteppe or PraireNorthern Hemisphere
303. DesertCharacterized by plants that can conserve water and withstand heat like:CactusSagebrush
314. TundraCharacterized by plants that tolerate the cold and dry conditions by hugging the ground like:MossLichen