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Climate and Climate Changes

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Presentation on theme: "Climate and Climate Changes"— Presentation transcript:

1 Climate and Climate Changes
Chapter 14.1, 14.2 and 14.3

2 Defining Climate Climatology: the study of Earth’s climate and the factors that affect past, present and future climatic changes. Climate describes the long-term weather patterns of an area.

3 Climates Describe Variations in…
Temperature Precipitation Wind Other variables

4 Normals Normals are standard data values for a location.
Data is used from at least 30 years and include… Daily high and low temperatures Amount of rainfall Wind speed and direction Humidity Air pressure

5 Causes of Climate 1. Latitude: determines the amount of solar radiation an area receives. Latitude alone separates the Earth into three different Climate zones.

6 Causes of Climate Tropics: 23.5 degrees N – 23.5 degrees S.
This climate zone receives the most direct sunlight. Temperatures are generally warm year round.

7 Causes of Climate Temperate zone: 23.5 degrees – 66.5 degrees North and South. Moderate temperatures, four seasons.

8 Causes of Climate Polar zones: 66.5 – 90 degrees North and South.
Receives light at low angles. Very indirect sunlight causing temperatures to be cold. Regions experience long periods of light and dark.

9 Causes of Climate 2. Large bodies of Water.
Water heats and cools slower than air. Large bodies of water act like a buffer for coastal regions.

10 Causes of Climate 3. Altitude
High Altitude can decrease an areas temperature. These regions are called highlands.

11 Causes of Climate 4. Mountain Barriers : Warm moist air condenses when air is lifted up over a mountain causing precipitation. Resulting in the formation of a desert on the opposite side of the mountain.

12 Natural Climate Changes
Ice ages are times in Earth’s history when Average global temperature decreased. Extensive glaciers covered Earth’s surface. Ice ages alternate between periods of warm and cold. The last ice age ended 10,000 ya

13 Natural Climate Changes
Seasons: are short-term periods of climatic change caused by regular variations in daylight, temperature, and weather patterns. Seasons are caused by the tilt of the Earth’s axis. The hemisphere that is tilted towards the sun is experiencing summer, away winter.

14 Natural Climate Changes
El Nino : a warm ocean current that occasionally develops off the western coast of South America. El Nino Video


16 Natural Climate Changes
Volcanic Activity Volcanic dust can remain suspended in the atmosphere for several years, reflecting incoming solar radiation and lower global temperatures. The eruption at Mount Pinatubo in 1991 lowered the global temperature for a year!

17 Unnatural Climate Changes
Greenhouse effect: the natural heating of Earth’s surface caused by certain atmospheric gasses called greenhouse gasses. Life on Earth would not be possible on Earth with out the greenhouse effect!!!! We would all freeze! Greenhouse effect acts like a blanket around Earth preventing all heat from escaping back into space.

18 Unnatural Climate Changes
Global Warming: an unhealthy amount of greenhouse gasses causing the average global temperature to increase. Basically causing the blanket to become to thick, trapping too much heat.


20 Unnatural Climate Changes
Causes of global warming 1. Burning fossil fuels Major green house gasses CO2, Methane, and Nitrous oxide. 2. Deforestation

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