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MATERIALS AND METHODS Leaves and roots of Moringa stenopetala were collected around Arbaminch town (Southern Ethiopia) in October 2008. The plant parts.

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Presentation on theme: "MATERIALS AND METHODS Leaves and roots of Moringa stenopetala were collected around Arbaminch town (Southern Ethiopia) in October 2008. The plant parts."— Presentation transcript:

1 MATERIALS AND METHODS Leaves and roots of Moringa stenopetala were collected around Arbaminch town (Southern Ethiopia) in October The plant parts were air-dried and the ground material was extracted in 20% ethanol. The extracts were concentrated using a rotary evaporator and lyophilized by freeze drying. The murine malaria model Plasmodium berghei / Anopheles stephensi / BALB/c mice was used to estimate antiplasmodial activity. Results and discussions Acknowledgements: funds for this research were obtained from the University of Camerino, the PhD Programme on Malaria and Human Development (supported by WHO, Global Malaria Programme) and the EU-project TransMalariaBloc. Contributing to validation of traditional antimalarial use of Moringa stenopetala Dori GU 1, Yerbanga SR 1, Tepongning NR 1, Lucantoni L 1, Lupidi G 1, Deressa W 2, Esposito F 3, Habluetzel A 1 1 School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, Italy; 2 Epidemiology and Statistics Unit, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia; 3 School of Biosciences and Biotechnologies, University of Camerino, Italy. INTRODUCTION Malaria is a major cause of ill health, poverty and death in sub-Saharan Africa. In Ethiopia it remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, although a substantial amount of resources is invested for the control and prevention of this parasitic disease. Malaria strikes wide areas of the Country and more than 40 million persons are at risk. Modern antimalarial drugs such as Coartem® and chloroquine circulate on the market, however these drugs are too expensive for the majority of those who need them, and often out of stock at public health facilities. As a matter of fact, up to 80% of the Ethiopian population resorts to cheap botanical remedies. In particular, in southern Ethiopia traditional medicine represents the major health resource. To cure malaria episodes, care takers prepare decoctions from a range of plant species, such as Moringa stenopetala (Moringaceae), Turea mombassana (Meliaceae) and Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae), using different plant parts, like leaves, seeds, bark and roots. Given the widespread use of botanical remedies, to investigate into their claimed antiplasmodial activity is of public health importance. Therefore this study was focused on the validation of Moringa stenopetala, one of the most commonly used antimalarial plants in Southern Ethiopia RX started 2 days before challenge TBF on day 5 and 7 after RX started % Parasitemia Average % suppression= ([B-C]/B)X100 B= Average % parasitaemia in the control group C= Average % parasitaemia in the test group. Treatment started 2 days earlier to challenge Anopheles stephensi on day 19 post infectious blood meal Figure 1. Percent parasitemia suppression of 20% ethanol extract of leaves and roots of Moringa stenopetala. The leaves extract of Moringa stenopetala reduced parasitaemia by 45% while roots extract showed minor efficacy with a reduction of parasitaemia limited to 26% (figure 1). The average parasitaemia at day 9,i.e. seven days after exposure to infectious bites was 4.5% in leave-treated mice, compared to 8.2% (P<0.05) in control animals. These results are in support of the traditionally claimed antimalarial, curative activity of Moringa stenopetala preparations. Since leaves and roots of Moringa stenopetala are rich in flavonoids, molecules that frequently possess bioactive properties, it might be hypothesized that components of this class of secondary metabolites may be responsible for the antimalarial activity observed in this study. In a recent behavioural investigation conducted in Southern Ethiopia (Konso district), we found that about half of the interviewed household heads (n= 609) cited home treatment with herbal medicine as the first source of malaria case management. Interviewees specified that caretakers frequently use haleko (vernacular name of Moringa stenopetala) to treat mild malaria cases, preparing a chowder of leaves, with the addition of butter and bones from animals like sheep and goats. Our current endeavors focus on the development of a standardized, effective and safe Moringa remedy, working in close collaboration with researchers from the Addis Ababa University and with traditional healers and community members of the Konso district, trying to build up mutual trust and respect between traditional and modern medicine actors. Each mouse received more than 12 infectious bites RX continued for 9 days


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