Presentation on theme: "Language Arts: Guided Reading"— Presentation transcript:
1Language Arts: Guided Reading Big BlocksSusan Roberts, Reading SpecialistJefferson County Schools
2Probably the single most important factor in a child’s initial reading instruction is his or his teacher. No books, no curriculum, no computer can replace the enormous value of good human-to-human teaching.
3National Reading Panel Research (December 2000): Less than 1/3 of fourth graders are reading adequately (April 1995)Now we know that reading must be taught systematically and explicitly.Research has been systematically analyzed and the most effective methods for teaching reading skills have been identified.We must have balanced literacy in our classrooms!Reading is an enormously complex activity!TEACHING READING IS ROCKET SCIENCE!
4Four Blocks Research:Both NRP and Duke and Pearson (2002) agree that explicit teaching, including an explanation of what and how the strategy should be used, teacher modeling and thinking aloud about the strategy, guided practice with the strategy and support for students applying the strategy independently are the steps needed to effectively teach any comprehension strategy.
6Guided Reading: Four Blocks Style Always focused on comprehensionTeachers choose the material and purposeStudents are guided to use reading strategiesAll types of reading materials are used
7Goals of Guided Reading in Big Blocks Classrooms: to teach comprehension strategiesto teach students how to read and respond to all types of literature including content textsto develop background knowledge and vocabularyto provide as much instructional-level material as possibleto maintain the self-confidence and motivation of struggling readers
8What is comprehension?The different kinds of thinking that we do as we read are referred to as comprehension strategies. Good readers need to use some strategies on almost all text, including:Connecting relevant background knowledgePredictingVisualizingSelf-monitoring and self-correctionUsing fix-up strategies such as:Re-readingPicture / context clues
9What is comprehension? Ask for help Determining important ideas and eventsDrawing conclusionsMaking inferencesDeciding what you think – respondingCompare and contrast to what you already knowSummarizing
10Other comprehension strategies might include: Understanding figurative languageFollowing the plot with understandingDetermining character traitsExtracting information from charts, graphs, maps, and other visualsDetermining the objectivity or bias of an author
11Effective Guided Reading: Three Segments Before ReadingDuring ReadingAfter Reading
12In Big Blocks classrooms, the Guided Reading Block is approximately 180 minutes per week and includes the following:Before-Reading PhaseBefore beginning a selection, students must:access or build prior knowledgemake connectionsmake predictionsidentify the purpose for reading
13Students need to begin thinking about the text before they begin reading the text. This time is brief, leaving the majority of the time for actual reading.(Allington, 2000)
14During-Reading Phase While reading, students must: question and monitor what they are reading and thinking aboutmake inferencesvisualizecontinue to make connectionscontinue to set predictions
15(Pearson and Fielding, 1991) Students need uninterrupted periods of time to read and think, so this phase should be the longest of any Guided Reading lesson. For every minute spent talking about reading (including before and after), students should spend at least one minute actually reading.(Pearson and Fielding, 1991)
16Formats for Grouping Students during Reading Plan for students to participate in various grouping formats.Exemplary teachers were found to teach lessons to the whole class, to small groups, and to individual students.(Pressley, Allington, Wharton-McDonald, Block, and Morrow, 2001)Guided reading formats should vary based on the purpose of the lesson.
17Whole Group, Multilevel Instruction (Big Blocks, p. 105)
18Partner Reading (Big Blocks, p. 106) Carefully assign partners.Decide how often you need to change partners.Decide where partners will meet.Decide how to handle absent partners.Decide how partners will read each selection. (Variations in partner reading)Make sure partners have a purpose for reading.Set a time limit.Provide a “filler” for partners who finish before the rest of the class.Model the expected behavior.Be visible.
20Reading TeamsThink of reading teams of two carefully selected partnerships making a foursome.The same concerns apply as with partners.Each team has an assigned team leader who ensures that all members participate.Teams may also need a recorder or a speaker.
21Formats: Three- Ring Circus (Big Blocks p. 108) This is a wonderful way to allow students to read a common selection in the most efficient way for them. In three- ring circus, some students read by themselves, some students read with partners, and some students read with you. These groups are not static and change with the reading selection.
22Formats: Book Club Groups (Big Blocks p. 109) Three to five titles chosenTitles area connected in some wayManaged choice (book passes)Groups meet daily to read and discuss their books
23Formats: Literature Circles (Big Blocks p. 111) Like book club books, however, in literature circles students generally:Read on their own and only meet in groups to discuss what was read.Determine as a group how much to read between meetings.Have specific roles they play in the discussion groups.Choose books connected by genre, author, theme or topic.
24Exemplary classrooms provide: Conversation about the texts students read(Allington & Johnston, 2001)Literate conversations mimic the conversations real readers in the real world have about real books they really want to talk about!Conduct discussions with readers as conversations – not interrogations.Model types of connections readers make (T-S, T-T, T-W).Arrange for students to have literate conversations in small groups.
25Literate Conversations: Increase the number of people with whom your students can have conversations through use of “Questioning the Author” and “Oprah Winfrey” strategies.
26Questioning the Author We do not just understand what the author is saying, rather we figure out what the author means.If you have you ever found your students cannot answer the questions because the passage “didn’t say!” then you know why students need their reading guided by a strategy called “Questioning the Author.”
27Planning a QTA Lesson:The teacher carefully reads the text and decides:what the important ideas are – what problems students might have with the ideashow much of the text to read before stopping for discussionwhat queries to pose to help students construct meaningThe teacher’s job is to pose queries that can help students use what they know to figure out what the author means.QTA continues with the teacher telling the students how much to read and posing both initiating and follow-up queries.Figure out what the author means….not just what he says!
28“Oprah Winfrey” Strategy Several students read the same book.Teacher plays the role of Oprah (initially) and interviews them about their lives and roles.Invite the students to appear on your “show.”Arrange chairs and welcome them.Begin with broad questions (tell me a bit about yourself).What seemed to be the problem?Ask others if they agree with her.You may even ask the audience questions.
29Literate Conversations: When students engage in conversations about what they have read, their understanding improves. (Fall, Webb, & Cudowsky, 2000)Exemplary classrooms provide:A balance of question and answer sessions
30Literate Conversations: Ask more open-ended questions:Is there anything you want to know more about?What are you wondering about?Does this book remind you of anything else you have read?Has anything like this ever happened to you?Did anyone in the story remind you of someone you know?Were you surprised by anything in this story?
31Think-Along / Think Aloud Thinking is the essence of reading!Reading is more than just saying words!Reading is thinking!Hmmm…
32To create classroom conversations, students think about three types of connections: (Keene and Zimmerman (1997)Text to self: Do any of you have a pet that is creating problems like the one in the story?Text to text: What other book have we read where a person was brave?Text to world: Has anyone ever ridden on a subway? What was it like?
33Thinking as we read may be modeled through Think-Alouds. Teachers may wish to use sentence starters to think aloud about the connections:“This reminds me of ….”“I remember something like this happened to me when…”“I read another book where the character…”“This is like in our school when…”Handout
35More strategies: Bookmarks, Sticky Notes, and Highlighters ERT – Everyone Read To…Find out / Figure out (Big Blocks p. 116)Story Maps (Big Blocks p. 150)T-Charts (Big Blocks p. 111) (graphic p. 149)Students write an entry from the text in the left column and respond with their connections in the right column.Predicting – Guess Yes or No (Big Blocks p. 112)GIST (Big Blocks p. 113)
36Informational Text Lessons: Use graphic organizers KWL (Big Blocks p. 122)Feature MatrixInformational Web (Semantic Web) (Big Blocks p. 119)Data ChartsTimelinesVenn diagram (Compare & Contrast) (Big Blocks p. 118 & 120)Cause and Effect – Causal Chain (Big Blocks p. 121)
37After-Reading PhaseAfter reading, students must follow-up their predictions, connections, and purpose. They may need to:summarizeidentify important informationevaluate or apply the information from the text to a specific problem or situationengage in conversationscreate a written response to reflect their thinking
38The after-reading activity should be challenging and move beyond the “right answer” to the teacher’s question but not so involved that it takes longer to respond than it did to read.
39Errors and Misunderstandings: Teachers express anxiety about their redefined role.Primary purpose is to improve comprehension. Other Blocks provide an appropriate context for skills instructions such as phonics, grammar, and mechanics.Round-robin reading is not a part of this model.Non-prescriptive – every classroom looks different.
40GOOD-BY ROUND ROBIN By Dr. Timothy Rasinski and Dr. Michael Opitz
41Question: What do I do about worksheets and workbook pages? …as little as possibleThree criteria for a good worksheet…Must involve some reading and/or writingMajority of my class (75-80%) must be able to do itStudents must need work on that skill
42Four Blocks Research: Comprehension is what it’s all about! Reading comprehension – and how to teach it – is probably the area of literacy about which we have the most knowledge and the most consensus.It is also probably the area that gets the least attention in the classroom.