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Probably the single most important factor in a child’s initial reading instruction is his or his teacher. No books, no curriculum, no computer can replace.

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Presentation on theme: "Probably the single most important factor in a child’s initial reading instruction is his or his teacher. No books, no curriculum, no computer can replace."— Presentation transcript:

1 Probably the single most important factor in a child’s initial reading instruction is his or his teacher. No books, no curriculum, no computer can replace the enormous value of good human-to-human teaching.

2 Think-Along / Think Aloud
Thinking is the essence of reading! Reading is more than just saying words! Reading is thinking!


4 Guided Reading: Four Blocks Style
Always focused on comprehension Teachers choose the material and purpose Students are guided to use reading strategies All types of reading materials are used

5 Guided Reading: Four Blocks Style
Teacher driven (Bossy Block) Lots of rereading – reading a different way for a different purpose! Arranged this way only because of the other three blocks as support.

6 National Reading Panel Research (December 2000):
Fluency is one of several critical factors needed for reading comprehension. Fluency is gained by way of two instructional approaches: guided repeated oral reading and independent silent reading. Both approaches had significant positive impact on word recognition, fluency, and comprehension across a range of grade levels. Results apply to good readers as well as those experiencing reading difficulties.

7 National Reading Panel Research (December 2000):
Less than 1/3 of fourth graders are reading adequately (April 1995) Now we know that reading must be taught systematically and explicitly. Research has been systematically analyzed and the most effective methods for teaching reading skills have been identified. We must have balanced literacy in our classrooms! Reading is an enormously complex activity! TEACHING READING IS ROCKET SCIENCE!

8 Four Blocks Research: Comprehension is what it’s all about!
Reading comprehension – and how to teach it – is probably the area of literacy about which we have the most knowledge and the most consensus. It is also probably the area that gets the least attention in the classroom.

9 Four Blocks Research: Both NRP and Duke and Pearson (2002) agree that explicit teaching, including an explanation of what and how the strategy should be used, teacher modeling and thinking aloud about the strategy, guided practice with the strategy and support for students applying the strategy independently are the steps needed to effectively teach any comprehension strategy.

10 Effective Guided Reading: Three Segments
Before Reading During Reading After Reading

11 Students need to begin thinking about the text before they begin reading the text. This time is brief, leaving the majority of the time for actual reading. (Allington, 2000)

12 Before Reading: Building/Accessing Prior Knowledge
Connecting to personal experiences Developing vocabulary Taking a “picture walk” Making predictions Setting purposes for reading Graphic organizer: Story map, story frame, story web, Lotus, Fishbone, KWL chart

13 During-Reading Phase While reading, students must:
question and monitor what they are reading and thinking about make inferences visualize continue to make connections continue to set predictions

14 (Pearson and Fielding, 1991)
Students need uninterrupted periods of time to read and think, so this phase should be the longest of any Guided Reading lesson. For every minute spent talking about reading (including before and after), students should spend at least one minute actually reading. (Pearson and Fielding, 1991)

15 During Reading: Variations: Choral, Echo, Shared Reading
Partner Reading Small, flexible groups Three-ring circus Book club groups ERT Sticky note reading

16 Formats for Grouping Students during Reading
Plan for students to participate in various grouping formats. Exemplary teachers were found to teach lessons to the whole class, to small groups, and to individual students. (Pressley, Allington, Wharton-McDonald, Block, and Morrow, 2001) Guided reading formats should vary based on the purpose of the lesson.

17 Partner Reading Carefully assign partners.
Decide how often you need to change partners. Decide where partners will meet. Decide how to handle absent partners. Decide how partners will read each selection. (Variations in partner reading) Make sure partners have a purpose for reading. Set a time limit. Provide a “filler” for partners who finish before the rest of the class. Model the expected behavior. Be visible.

18 During Reading: - Partner Reading

19 During Reading: - Partner Reading
Variations: “Take turn days” “Ask question days” “Sticky note days” “You decide days” Variations Poster

20 Formats: Three- Ring Circus (Big Blocks p. 108)
This is a wonderful way to allow students to read a common selection in the most efficient way for them. In three- ring circus, some students read by themselves, some students read with partners, and some students read with you. These groups are not static and change with the reading selection.

21 During Reading: - Three-Ring Circus

22 During Reading: Small Flexible Group
Graphic Organizer - first, next, finally

23 Reading Teams Think of reading teams of two carefully selected partnerships making a foursome. The same concerns apply as with partners. Each team has an assigned team leader who ensures that all members participate. Teams may also need a recorder or a speaker.

24 Formats: Book Club Groups (Big Blocks p. 109)
Three to five titles chosen Titles area connected in some way Managed choice (book passes) Groups meet daily to read and discuss their books

25 After Reading: Teacher helps the children with: Discussing the text
Connecting new knowledge to what they knew Following up predictions Acting out the story Discussing what they have learned and how they are becoming better readers using strategies Completing the graphic organizer (KWL Chart)

26 Literate Conversations:
Increase the number of people with whom your students can have conversations through use of “Questioning the Author” and “Oprah Winfrey” strategies.

27 “Oprah Winfrey” Strategy
Several students read the same book. Teacher plays the role of Oprah (initially) and interviews them about their lives and roles. Invite the students to appear on your “show.” Arrange chairs and welcome them. Begin with broad questions (tell me a bit about yourself). What seemed to be the problem? Ask others if they agree with her. You may even ask the audience questions.

28 Questioning the Author
We do not just understand what the author is saying, rather we figure out what the author means. If you have you ever found your students cannot answer the questions because the passage “didn’t say!” then you know why students need their reading guided by a strategy called “Questioning the Author.”

29 Planning a QTA Lesson: The teacher carefully reads the text and decides: what the important ideas are – what problems students might have with the ideas how much of the text to read before stopping for discussion what queries to pose to help students construct meaning The teacher’s job is to pose queries that can help students use what they know to figure out what the author means. QTA continues with the teacher telling the students how much to read and posing both initiating and follow-up queries. Figure out what the author means….not just what he says!

30 Big Blocks - Variations:
Bookmarks Sticky Notes Highlighters Read-Cover-Remember-Retell Reciprocal Teaching Two Word Strategy Word Theater Good Reader Strategies

31 Question: What do I do about worksheets and workbook pages?
…as little as possible Three criteria for a good worksheet… Must involve some reading and/or writing Majority of my class (75-80%) must be able to do it Students must need work on that skill

32 Errors and Misunderstandings:
Teachers express anxiety about their redefined role. Primary purpose is to improve comprehension. Other Blocks provide an appropriate context for skills instructions such as phonics, grammar, and mechanics. Round-robin reading is not a part of this model. Non-prescriptive – every classroom looks different.

33 What we know… We know a great deal about how good readers comprehend, what the comprehension strategies are and how to teach them. Our job now is to implement reading comprehension instruction in every classroom. Dr. Lola May… “Know your stuff” “Know whom you stuff” “Stuff them elegantly”

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