Presentation on theme: "Probably the single most important factor in a child’s initial reading instruction is his or his teacher. No books, no curriculum, no computer can replace."— Presentation transcript:
1Probably the single most important factor in a child’s initial reading instruction is his or his teacher. No books, no curriculum, no computer can replace the enormous value of good human-to-human teaching.
2Think-Along / Think Aloud Thinking is the essence of reading!Reading is more than just saying words!Reading is thinking!
4Guided Reading: Four Blocks Style Always focused on comprehensionTeachers choose the material and purposeStudents are guided to use reading strategiesAll types of reading materials are used
5Guided Reading: Four Blocks Style Teacher driven (Bossy Block)Lots of rereading – reading a different way for a different purpose!Arranged this way only because of the other three blocks as support.
6National Reading Panel Research (December 2000): Fluency is one of several critical factors needed for reading comprehension.Fluency is gained by way of two instructional approaches: guided repeated oral reading and independent silent reading.Both approaches had significant positive impact on word recognition, fluency, and comprehension across a range of grade levels.Results apply to good readers as well as those experiencing reading difficulties.
7National Reading Panel Research (December 2000): Less than 1/3 of fourth graders are reading adequately (April 1995)Now we know that reading must be taught systematically and explicitly.Research has been systematically analyzed and the most effective methods for teaching reading skills have been identified.We must have balanced literacy in our classrooms!Reading is an enormously complex activity!TEACHING READING IS ROCKET SCIENCE!
8Four Blocks Research: Comprehension is what it’s all about! Reading comprehension – and how to teach it – is probably the area of literacy about which we have the most knowledge and the most consensus.It is also probably the area that gets the leastattention in the classroom.
9Four Blocks Research:Both NRP and Duke and Pearson (2002) agree that explicit teaching, including an explanation of what and how the strategy should be used, teacher modeling and thinking aloud about the strategy, guided practice with the strategy and support for students applying the strategy independently are the steps needed to effectively teach any comprehension strategy.
10Effective Guided Reading: Three Segments Before ReadingDuring ReadingAfter Reading
11Students need to begin thinking about the text before they begin reading the text. This time is brief, leaving the majority of the time for actual reading.(Allington, 2000)
12Before Reading: Building/Accessing Prior Knowledge Connecting to personal experiencesDeveloping vocabularyTaking a “picture walk”Making predictionsSetting purposes for readingGraphic organizer:Story map, story frame, story web,Lotus, Fishbone, KWL chart
13During-Reading Phase While reading, students must: question and monitor what they are reading and thinking aboutmake inferencesvisualizecontinue to make connectionscontinue to set predictions
14(Pearson and Fielding, 1991) Students need uninterrupted periods of time to read and think, so this phase should be the longest of any Guided Reading lesson. For every minute spent talking about reading (including before and after), students should spend at least one minute actually reading.(Pearson and Fielding, 1991)
16Formats for Grouping Students during Reading Plan for students to participate in various grouping formats.Exemplary teachers were found to teach lessons to the whole class, to small groups, and to individual students.(Pressley, Allington, Wharton-McDonald, Block, and Morrow, 2001)Guided reading formats should vary based on the purpose of the lesson.
17Partner Reading Carefully assign partners. Decide how often you need to change partners.Decide where partners will meet.Decide how to handle absent partners.Decide how partners will read each selection. (Variations in partner reading)Make sure partners have a purpose for reading.Set a time limit.Provide a “filler” for partners who finish before the rest of the class.Model the expected behavior.Be visible.
20Formats: Three- Ring Circus (Big Blocks p. 108) This is a wonderful way to allow students to read a common selection in the most efficient way for them. In three- ring circus, some students read by themselves, some students read with partners, and some students read with you. These groups are not static and change with the reading selection.
22During Reading: Small Flexible Group Graphic Organizer - first, next, finally
23Reading TeamsThink of reading teams of two carefully selected partnerships making a foursome.The same concerns apply as with partners.Each team has an assigned team leader who ensures that all members participate.Teams may also need a recorder or a speaker.
24Formats: Book Club Groups (Big Blocks p. 109) Three to five titles chosenTitles area connected in some wayManaged choice (book passes)Groups meet daily to read and discuss their books
25After Reading: Teacher helps the children with: Discussing the text Connecting new knowledge to what they knewFollowing up predictionsActing out the storyDiscussing what they have learned and how they are becoming better readers using strategiesCompleting the graphic organizer (KWL Chart)
26Literate Conversations: Increase the number of people with whom your students can have conversations through use of “Questioning the Author” and “Oprah Winfrey” strategies.
27“Oprah Winfrey” Strategy Several students read the same book.Teacher plays the role of Oprah (initially) and interviews them about their lives and roles.Invite the students to appear on your “show.”Arrange chairs and welcome them.Begin with broad questions (tell me a bit about yourself).What seemed to be the problem?Ask others if they agree with her.You may even ask the audience questions.
28Questioning the Author We do not just understand what the author is saying, rather we figure out what the author means.If you have you ever found your students cannot answer the questions because the passage “didn’t say!” then you know why students need their reading guided by a strategy called “Questioning the Author.”
29Planning a QTA Lesson:The teacher carefully reads the text and decides:what the important ideas are – what problems students might have with the ideashow much of the text to read before stopping for discussionwhat queries to pose to help students construct meaningThe teacher’s job is to pose queries that can help students use what they know to figure out what the author means.QTA continues with the teacher telling the students how much to read and posing both initiating and follow-up queries.Figure out what the author means….not just what he says!
31Question: What do I do about worksheets and workbook pages? …as little as possibleThree criteria for a good worksheet…Must involve some reading and/or writingMajority of my class (75-80%) must be able to do itStudents must need work on that skill
32Errors and Misunderstandings: Teachers express anxiety about their redefined role.Primary purpose is to improve comprehension. Other Blocks provide an appropriate context for skills instructions such as phonics, grammar, and mechanics.Round-robin reading is not a part of this model.Non-prescriptive – every classroom looks different.
33What we know…We know a great deal about how good readers comprehend, what the comprehension strategies are and how to teach them. Our job now is to implement reading comprehension instruction in every classroom.Dr. Lola May…“Know your stuff”“Know whom you stuff”“Stuff them elegantly”