Presentation on theme: "Making Inferences or Predictions. What is Inference? “The Art of Predicting” Thinking at a higher level. Being able to infer separates good readers from."— Presentation transcript:
What is Inference? “The Art of Predicting” Thinking at a higher level. Being able to infer separates good readers from struggling readers. It’s a way to gather information from different sources to make connections or conclusions about what the text means. It’s “reading between the lines” or finding the clues to better understand the text. It’s an author “showing rather than telling” the emotions of a character.
Purpose for Predicting/Inferring If you try to predict more often, then you have a greater chance of being right. Predictions give you motivation and purpose for reading what you read. To activate prior background knowledge with the text to develop a deeper meaning and understanding about the text.
When should you infer? Before Reading (the cover of a book, clues from pictures, pre-reading questions, prior knowledge for guessing, and clues from the first page) During Reading (text, illustrations, text clues, experiences/prior knowledge, comparisons, cause and effects) After Reading (prior knowledge, experiences, text clues, comparisons, causes and effects, and connections to the text)
Type of Inferences 1. Text-to-Text Inferences (Connects one part of a text to another) (There can be text-to- other-text connections from authors) 2. Text-to-Self/World Inferences (Connects text to a student’s own experiences and knowledge of the world around them.)
Inference Strategies Cause and Effect Timeline Venn Diagram KWL Chart Sticky Symbols and Drawings Text Transformation Concept Definition Map
Cause and Effect Timeline This is a graphic organizer timeline that asks you to not only determine the sequence of events in a story or historical account but also to establish or infer the causes of those events. Make one long timeline and on divide the area in half and put What happened? or events on top and why or causes on the bottom of the organizer. Each cause needs to be supported with evidence.
Venn Diagram This is a diagram that requires the learner to compare and contrast two items being studied. Draw 2 interconnecting circles. Above each circle right the topic. Explain the compare and contrast and now have students read the story. Fill in the diagram and discuss it.
KWL Chart This is a three column organizer that we can write down information on what we KNOW, WANT to know, and what we have LEARNED from text. Create 3 columns on the board or a worksheet. Ask students “What they know”, and have them fill in the first column. Next ask them what they want to know and have them fill this in the 2 nd column and then have students read the text. Lastly, have students write what they learned in the final column.
Sticky Symbols and Drawings This is an activity where you create symbols and drawings on sticky notes that are visual reminders of what is in the text. Explain concepts or ideas that we are looking for in the text. When students don’t understand a concept or term they can write on their sticky note and put it in the book. We share all sticky notes and answer the questions on them as a class.
Text Transformation This is transforming a text into a different genre. This will have to be modeled with examples. Transfer the text into another type of writing to text. (Example: From a poem to a short story)
Concept Definition Map This is a map that students create starting with a key concept/idea and branching out from that. Students will create concept maps/graphic organizers based on one main concept/idea and this keeps building as other areas are mapped off of the original idea/concept.
Character Report Card This is an activity in which the students get to grade the characters in a book or chapter on certain traits or qualities. Choose a story and decide which characters to evaluate. Brainstorm a list of traits. Write down the characters and the lists. Generate a grading system and have students grade each character based on the traits and how they feel about that character. Students can agree/disagree in pairs or groups as they come to a consensus on each character.
Dialogue Comic Strip Students will create dialogues or infer conversations between two objects or people. Students will modify or create three important conversations from the text into dialogue bubbles. Students will try to create dialogues between two objects or people based on what they understand in the text and then they will share these dialogues with a partner.
Inference Advertisements This is using magazine articles to have students guess how the advertisers are influencing them to buy their products. Show a picture of an advertisement with only a few lines of texts and ask the students to infer/guess what they think it means. Make a chart with descriptions about the advertisment to make sure it is understood.
Prediction Chart This is a way for students to find good evidence for making predictions. Give the students a prediction chart and give them a title of a movie then have them make a prediction. Next ask students what they predicted. Put the answers on the board. Next watch the first five minutes of the movie. Check to see if the predictions are correct and go over them in class.
T+B=I Inference Machines This is a visual organizer that is somewhat like an assembly line of the brain. T=Text information; B=Background knowledge; I=Inference Machine. Make a visual organizer with one main concept or idea and then put text information and background knowledge predictions off of that and show what is inferred as a final point on the inference machine/chart.
Conclusions on Inferring In conclusion, inferring/predicting is a crucial step in the reading and comprehension process. If students can’t infer then they are not getting at the deeper meaning of the text. They need to be able to do this so that they are thinking at a higher level opening doors in their learning process. If I can’t help students make inferences then they are not activating their prior knowledge and they are not making the connections that they need for deeper understanding and meaning of text.