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Presentation on theme: "Oceanography."— Presentation transcript:

1 Oceanography

2 Vocabulary 1 Make a flapbook for the following words. They begin on p.471 in your text book. Global ocean Sea Oceanography Sonar Continental margin Deep-ocean basin Trench Abyssal plain

3 The Water Planet Almost 3/4s of the Earth is covered beneath a body of salt water called the GLOBAL OCEAN The GLOBAL OCEAN contains more than 97% of all the water on Earth. 5 major oceans (in order from largest to smallest): Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern, Arctic A SEA is a body of water smaller than an ocean and may be partially surrounded by land.

4 The Water Planet Insert map of oceans and seas

5 Features of the Ocean Floor
Ocean floor can be divided into 2 major areas: CONTINENTAL MARGINS and DEEP-OCEAN BASIN Continental Margins are shallow parts of the ocean floor on continental crust Deep-Ocean Basins are deep parts made of oceanic crust

6 Features of the Ocean Floor
Insert picture of ocean floor

7 Continental Margins Continental Margins are the areas of ocean floor that surround land. They are typically shallow (max 60m deep) and sloping

8 Deep-Ocean Basins These are the deep and broadest parts of the ocean.
Deep Ocean Basins contain broad, flat plains, submerged volcanoes, mountain ranges, and deep trenches. Trenches are long, narrow depressions. The Mariana Trench in the Pacific is more than 11,000 meters deep and is the deepest point on Earth Trenches form when one plate subducts under another

9 Deep-Ocean Basins Abyssal Plains are the vast, flat areas of the Deep Ocean Basin. Layers of sediment (often called ‘ocean snow’ cover the abyssal plains.

10 Brain Pop! The Ocean Floor

11 Review Questions p. 478 Directed Reading Review Packet #1,2,4,6
Choose 30 questions to answer

12 Vocabulary 2 Make a flapbook for the following terms. They begin on p.493 Salinity Pack ice Thermocline Density

13 Pure water is tasteless, odorless, and colorless.
Ocean Water Pure water is tasteless, odorless, and colorless. Ocean water is NOT pure, it contains many solids and gases that are dissolved (suspended) within it.

14 Dissolved Gases Gases (such as Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen) enter the oceans directly from the atmosphere, from rivers, from underwater volcanoes, and from marine organisms Temperature of the water affects the amount of gas that dissolves in water…

15 Dissolved Gases Mini-Lab
Question: Which water sample will lose more gas, hot or cold? Hypothesis: I think that the _________ water will lose more gas. Materials/Procedure: Fill each cup with 100 mL of club soda (one room temperature, one chilled). Observe both for 5 min and write down anything you see (bubbles signify gas is escaping). Result: Which sample (hot or cold lost more gas?)

16 What was the independent variable (what did you change)?
Mini-Lab Questions What was the independent variable (what did you change)? What was the dependent variable (what changed as a result)? Describe what happened in each cup and why you think that?

17 Temperature and Dissolved Gases
Gases dissolve easily in colder water and escape more quickly in warmer water A lot of CO2 escapes from the warmer, equatorial oceans and back into the atmosphere.

18 Salinity Salinity is the measure of the amount of dissolved salts and other solids in a liquid. Ocean water is about 3% salt. Factors that change salinity: Precipitation (rain and snow) adds to the amount of fresh water, therefore making the water LESS salty or lower in salinity Evaporation/Freezing reduces the amount of fresh water, therefore making the water more salty, or higher in salinity

19 Salinity Insert Salinity Map/Diagram

20 Temperature Ocean temperatures vary depending on depth and location and solar energy and ocean movement Surface Water is about the first 300 m of the ocean from the top. Surface water is relatively constant, decreasing slightly as is it gets deeper Surface water at the equator are about 30 degrees warmer than the surface water at the poles due to more solar energy.

21 Thermocline The thermocline is a region of ocean water where the temperature drops with an increase in depth faster than it does in all other layers of the ocean. The thermocline is a distinct layer that separates the warmer surface water from the cold deep water.

22 Thermocline Why do you think it gets colder as depth increases?

23 The colder the water, the denser the water.
Deep Water In the deep zones of the ocean, temperature is usually about 2 degrees Celsius. The colder the water, the denser the water.

24 Density is the mass of a substance divided by its volume.
Density of Ocean Water Density is the mass of a substance divided by its volume. Density of pure water is 1 g/cm cubed. Different liquids have different densities Density video clip 2 factors that affect the density of ocean water are Salinity and Temperature…

25 Salinity Lab!

26 Temperature Lab!

27 Color—Why is the Ocean Blue??

28 Directed Reading Review Packet

29 Vocabulary 3 Create a flapbook for the following terms, they begin on p.519. Current Surface current Coriolis Effect Gyre Gulf Stream Deep Current

30 Ocean Currents The water in the ocean moves in giant streams called CURRENTS. Currents that move on or near the surface are called SURFACE CURRENTS. They are driven by winds, the Coriolis Effect, and the location of the continents. Wind is created by the uneven heating of the Earth by the sun, which causes changes in density. Surface Currents can be warm or cold.

31 Gyres Global wind belts and the Coriolis Effect cause huge circles of moving water called GYRES. In the Northern Hemisphere, gyres flow to the right, in the Southern Hemisphere, gyres flow to the left.

32 Major Surface Currents
Equatorial Currents—warm currents located near the equator Antarctic Circumpolar Current or West Wind Drift—largest current in the world. Located in the Southern Hemisphere. Gulf Stream—In the North Atlantic, warm water current.

33 Major Surface Currents
Map of major surface currents

34 Deep Currents Deep Currents are cold, dense currents far below the surface. Deep currents move more slowly than surface currents Deep currents are driven by density of the ocean water

35 Bill Nye Ocean Currents!

36 Roaming Rubber Duckies
Maps in Action p.542, Answer 1-7.

37 Flotsam and Jetsam

38 Directed Reading Review Packet

39 Extra Credit Opportunity!
Watch either of the following movies and make a list of all of the items related to oceans, oceanography! Also include a paragraph summary of how the movie used the science of oceanography. Movie Choices: --Finding Nemo --Castaway 10 test points for each movie! Due 2nd week of May.

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