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The Study of the Oceans. Main Parts to Oceanography:  Chemical – Elements and Chemical Reactions  Biological – Living Organisms  Physical – Energy.

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Presentation on theme: "The Study of the Oceans. Main Parts to Oceanography:  Chemical – Elements and Chemical Reactions  Biological – Living Organisms  Physical – Energy."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Study of the Oceans

2 Main Parts to Oceanography:  Chemical – Elements and Chemical Reactions  Biological – Living Organisms  Physical – Energy and Motions of Seawater  Geological – Sediments and Topography

3 Activity: Globe Toss  Data:  Analysis:

4 How much of the earth’s surface makes up the oceans?  Oceans cover 71 % of the Earth’s surface.  29% is land

5 World Ocean  Could a ship attempting to travel through all oceans do so without being stopped?  What about ice?  The waters beneath the ice do connect the ocean basins.  All oceans of the world are connected.  There are no natural boundaries that entirely separate the 4 ocean basins – The United Nations established the boundaries of the oceans and continents.

6 Why study the ocean?  Last Frontier  Countries divide oceans near their land  Oil and food shortages  Source of rain and snow for rivers  Influence climate

7 Five Oceans of the World  In order from Largest  Smallest:  Pacific Ocean  Atlantic Ocean  Indian Ocean  Southern Ocean  Arctic Ocean

8 Pacific Ocean  Water Features:  52% of the world’s ocean water  Deepest and largest basin  Land Features:  Ring of Fire  Mountains around basins ( saucer-like depressions of the ocean floor)  Least affected by continents  Many islands, most formed by volcanoes  Deepest Trench – Marianas (7 miles)  Large mid-ocean ridge down the east side of the basin

9 Marianas Trench  Between Japan and Australia  Challenger Deep = deepest part of world ocean

10 Atlantic Ocean  Water Features:  Shallow basin, average 3,310 m deep  26% of world’s ocean water  Broad continental margins  Large rivers enter – Amazon and Congo (25% of world’s fresh water flows from these rivers)  Land Features:  Mid-Atlantic Ridge runs down the center  Part of the longest continuous mountain range in world- the Mid-Ocean Ridge

11 Indian Ocean  Water Features:  20% of world’s ocean water  Mostly in southern hemisphere  2 sources of warm salt water – Red Sea and Arabian Sea  Currents change direction twice a year due to Monsoon winds  Land Feature:  Y - shaped ridge, called the Mid-Indian Ridge

12 Southern Ocean  Water Features:  Noted for ferocious weather and high waves  Located between 60 o S and the continent of Antarctica  Antarctic Circumpolar Current flows clockwise around Antarctica and isolates surface waters  Land Features:  Deepest point located in South Sandwich Trench  No well defined basin

13 Arctic Ocean  Water Features:  2% of world’s ocean water  Circular in shape  Mostly surrounded by land  Most shallow  Covered by ice most of the year  Land Features:  2 main basins


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