Presentation on theme: " Name the three major processes in the water cycle. Describe the properties of ocean water. Describe the two types of ocean currents. Explain how."— Presentation transcript:
Name the three major processes in the water cycle. Describe the properties of ocean water. Describe the two types of ocean currents. Explain how the ocean regulates Earth’s temperature. Discuss the factors that confine life to the biosphere. Explain the difference between open and closed systems.
The hydrosphere includes all of the water on or near the Earth’s surface. This includes ◦ water in the oceans ◦ lakes ◦ rivers ◦ wetlands ◦ polar ice caps ◦ soil ◦ rock layers beneath the Earth ◦ clouds
The water cycle: is the ◦ continuous movement of water from the ocean to atmosphere to land back to ocean. Evaporation: change of a substance from liquid to gas. Water continually evaporates from the Earth’s oceans, lakes, streams, and soil, but the majority evaporates from the oceans.
Condensation is the change of state from a gas to a liquid. ◦ Water vapor forms water droplets ◦ Droplets form clouds ◦ Clouds create heavier drops that fall as Precipitation Precipitation is any form of water that falls to the Earth from the clouds including ◦ Rain ◦ Snow ◦ Sleet ◦ Hail
All of the oceans are joined together called: ◦ world ocean. Oceans regulate the planet’s environment.
The largest ocean is the Pacific Ocean ◦ surface area of about 165,640,000 km 2. ◦ The deepest point is Challenger Deep. It is 11,033m (6.85miles) below sea level ◦ deeper than Mount Everest is tall.
Largest Ocean: Pacific Ocean ◦ divided into two parts North Pacific and South Pacific ◦ based on the direction of the surface currents. North Pacific: currents move clockwise South Pacific: currents move counter- clockwise
2 nd largest ocean: Atlantic Ocean ◦ about 1/2 the size of Pacific Ocean ◦ Covers 81,630,000 km 2. Can be divided into a north and south based on the directions of surface currents.
3 rd largest ocean: The Indian Ocean ◦ covers73,420,000 km 2. The smallest ocean: Artic ocean ◦ covers 14,350,000 km 2. ◦ much of its surface is covered by floating ice Summer in the Arctic
What makes ocean and fresh water different? ◦ SALT Salinity is a measure of the amount of dissolved salts in water. ◦ lower in places: that get a lot of rain where fresh water flows in to the sea. ◦ higher where water evaporates rapidly leaving salts behind.
Most of the salt in the ocean is sodium chloride (NaCl a.k.a. table salt) although many other elements can be found in the ocean as well.
Surface: warmed by the sun stirred up by waves and currents so the ◦ warm surface zone may be 350 m deep. Thermocline: Below the surface zone ◦ about 300 to 700 m ◦ temperature falls rapidly. depths of the ocean ◦ no sunlight = very cold, just above freezing.
Epipelagic Zone Mesopelagic Zone Bathypelagic Zone Abyssopelagic Zone Hadalpelagic Zone Benthic Zone
Epipelagic Zone: Surface – 650 ft ◦ Upper ocean zone. Full of life ◦ enough sunlight to sustain photosynthesis. (a.k.a.) Euphotic Zone.
Mesopelagic Zone: 650 ft – 3300ft ◦ not enough sunlight to sustain photosynthesis. (a.k.a.) Disphotic Zone.
Bathypelagic Zone: 3300 ft ft lowest level on the continental shelf. No sunlight. Aphotic Zone: No Sunlight Plants cannot grow. No primary productivity. All the food in this zone comes from dead material sinking from the higher layers.
Abyssopelagic Zone: 13000ft- ~20000ft ◦ Largest layer of the ocean. ◦ It is completely dark, and the ◦ Low oxygen concentration Extreme pressure. No sunlight. Aphotic Zone: No Sunlight Plants cannot grow. No primary productivity. Does Support life. ◦ Organisms feed off of dead and fecal materials that sink to the sea floor.
Hadalpelagic Zone: 20000ft and Lower Deep ocean trenches such as the Mariana Trench and others. Shares same characteristics as the Abyssal Zone except even deeper. No sunlight. Aphotic Zone: No Sunlight Plants cannot grow.
Benthic Zone: This is the ocean floor. ◦ Mudlike sediments form bodies of dead organisms ◦ Fecal pellets of aquatic organisms also accumulate here. Sediment of dead organisms and fecal matter can be a mile thick. Aphotic Zone: No Sunlight Extreme pressure
Important functions: ◦ Absorb and store energy from sunlight ◦ This regulates temperatures in Earth’s atmosphere. Because the ocean both absorbs and releases heat slower than land, the temperature of the atmosphere changes more slowly. If oceans did not regulate temperatures, temperatures would be too extreme for life to exist on Earth.
Local temperatures are regulated by the world ocean. Currents circulate warm water causing land areas they flow past to have more moderate climates. For example, the British Isles are warmed by the waters of the Gulf Stream.
surface currents: Streamlike movements of water that occur at or near the surface. ◦ wind driven and result from global wind patterns. Surface currents: ◦ can be warm or cold ◦ They do not readily mix with one another.
Deep currents ◦ movements of water that flow very slowly along the ocean floor. Deep currents form when the cold, dense water from the poles sinks below warmer, less dense ocean water and flows toward the equator. ◦ The densest and coldest ocean water is located off the coast of Antarctica producing a deep current called the Antarctic Bottom Water.
Fresh water: ◦ Most fresh water is locked up in icecaps and glaciers ◦ The rest is found in lakes rivers wetlands soil and atmosphere A river system: ◦ network of streams that drains an area of land ◦ including the main river, smaller streams or rivers that flow into larger ones.
Precipitation sinks into the ground and run off the land. Most of this water trickles down through the ground and collects as groundwater. Groundwater fulfills the need for fresh drinking water, and supplies agricultural and industrial need. Makes up 1% of all the water on Earth,
A rock layer that stores and allows the flow of groundwater is called an aquifer.
The biosphere is the part of Earth where life exists, ◦ 11 km into the ocean ◦ 9 km into the atmosphere. The materials that organisms require must be continually recycled. Biosphere: only area with Suitable conditions for life due to abundant sunlight.
Plants need sunlight to produce food ◦ almost every other organism gets its food from plants and algae. Most of the algae float at the surface, known as phytoplankton.
When an organism dies, its body is broken down and the nutrients become available for use by other organisms. This flow of energy allows life on Earth to continue to exist.
Closed systems are systems that cannot exchange matter or energy with its surroundings. Open systems are systems that can exchange both matter and energy with its surroundings. Earth is a closed system with respect to matter Earth is a open system for energy energy travel ◦ Sun ◦ Plant ◦ animal