2 Objectives Name the three major processes in the water cycle. Describe the properties of ocean water.Describe the two types of ocean currents.Explain how the ocean regulates Earth’s temperature.Discuss the factors that confine life to the biosphere.Explain the difference between open and closed systems.
3 The HydrosphereThe hydrosphere includes all of the water on or near the Earth’s surface.This includeswater in the oceanslakesriverswetlandspolar ice capssoilrock layers beneath the Earthclouds
4 The Water Cycle The water cycle: is the continuous movement of waterfrom the ocean to atmosphere to land back to ocean.Evaporation: change of a substance from liquid to gas.Water continually evaporates from the Earth’s oceans, lakes, streams, and soil, but the majority evaporates from the oceans.
5 The Water CycleCondensation is the change of state from a gas to a liquid.Water vapor forms water dropletsDroplets form cloudsClouds create heavier drops that fall as PrecipitationPrecipitation is any form of water that falls to the Earth from the clouds includingRainSnowSleetHail
7 Earth’s Oceans All of the oceans are joined together called: world ocean.Oceans regulate the planet’s environment.
8 Earth’s Oceans The largest ocean is the Pacific Ocean surface area of about 165,640,000 km2.The deepest point is Challenger Deep.It is 11,033m (6.85miles) below sea leveldeeper than Mount Everest is tall.
9 Earth’s Oceans Largest Ocean: Pacific Ocean divided into two partsNorth Pacific and South Pacificbased on the direction of the surface currents.North Pacific: currents move clockwiseSouth Pacific: currents move counter- clockwise
11 Earth’s Oceans 2nd largest ocean: Atlantic Ocean about 1/2 the size of Pacific OceanCovers 81,630,000 km2.Can be divided into a north and south based on the directions of surface currents.
12 Earth’s Oceans 3rd largest ocean: The Indian Ocean covers73,420,000 km2.The smallest ocean: Artic oceancovers 14,350,000 km2.much of its surface is covered by floating iceSummer in the Arctic
13 Ocean Water What makes ocean and fresh water different? SALTSalinity is a measure of the amount of dissolved salts in water.lower in places:that get a lot of rainwhere fresh water flows in to the sea.higher where water evaporates rapidly leaving salts behind.
14 Ocean WaterMost of the salt in the ocean is sodium chloride (NaCl a.k.a. table salt)although many other elements can be found in the ocean as well.
15 Temperature Zones Surface: warmed by the sun stirred up by waves and currents so thewarm surface zone may be 350 m deep.Thermocline: Below the surface zoneabout 300 to 700 mtemperature falls rapidly.depths of the oceanno sunlight = very cold, just above freezing.
18 Ocean Layers (From Surface to Floor) Epipelagic ZoneMesopelagic ZoneBathypelagic ZoneAbyssopelagic ZoneHadalpelagic ZoneBenthic Zone
19 Ocean Zones Epipelagic Zone: Full of life (a.k.a.) Euphotic Zone. Surface – 650 ftUpper ocean zone.Full of lifeenough sunlight to sustain photosynthesis.(a.k.a.) Euphotic Zone.
20 Ocean Zones Mesopelagic Zone: (a.k.a.) Disphotic Zone. 650 ft – 3300ft not enough sunlight to sustain photosynthesis.(a.k.a.) Disphotic Zone.
21 Ocean Zones 3300 ft- 13000ft Bathypelagic Zone: lowest level on the continental shelf.No sunlight.Aphotic Zone: No SunlightPlants cannot grow.No primary productivity.All the food in this zone comes from dead material sinking from the higher layers.
22 Ocean Zones Abyssopelagic Zone: Extreme pressure. Does Support life. 13000ft- ~20000ftLargest layer of the ocean.It is completely dark, and theLow oxygen concentrationExtreme pressure.No sunlight.Aphotic Zone: No SunlightPlants cannot grow.No primary productivity.Does Support life.Organisms feed off of dead and fecal materials that sink to the sea floor.
23 Ocean Zones 20000ft and Lower Hadalpelagic Zone: Deep ocean trenches such as the Mariana Trench and others.Shares same characteristics as the Abyssal Zone except even deeper.No sunlight.Aphotic Zone: No SunlightPlants cannot grow.
24 Ocean Zones Benthic Zone: This is the ocean floor. Mudlike sediments form bodies of dead organismsFecal pellets of aquatic organisms also accumulate here.Sediment of dead organisms and fecal matter can be a mile thick.Aphotic Zone: No SunlightExtreme pressure
26 A Global Temperature Regulator Important functions:Absorb and store energy from sunlightThis regulates temperatures in Earth’s atmosphere.Because the ocean both absorbs and releases heat slower than land, the temperature of the atmosphere changes more slowly.If oceans did not regulate temperatures, temperatures would be too extreme for life to exist on Earth.
27 A Global Temperature Regulator Local temperatures are regulated by the world ocean.Currents circulate warm water causing land areas they flow past to have more moderate climates.For example, the British Isles are warmed by the waters of the Gulf Stream.
28 Ocean Currentssurface currents: Streamlike movements of water that occur at or near the surface.wind driven and result from global wind patterns.Surface currents:can be warm or coldThey do not readilymix with one another.
30 Ocean Currents Deep currents movements of water that flow very slowly along the ocean floor.Deep currents form when the cold, dense water from the poles sinks below warmer, less dense ocean water and flows toward the equator.The densest and coldest ocean water is located off the coast of Antarctica producing a deep current called the Antarctic Bottom Water.
31 Fresh Water and River Systems Most fresh water is locked up in icecaps and glaciersThe rest is found inlakesriverswetlandssoil andatmosphereA river system:network of streams that drains an area of landincluding the main river, smaller streams or rivers that flow into larger ones.
32 Ground water Precipitation sinks into the ground and run off the land. Most of this water trickles down through the ground and collects as groundwater.Groundwater fulfills the need for fresh drinking water, and supplies agricultural and industrial need.Makes up 1% of all the water on Earth,
33 AquifersA rock layer that stores and allows the flow of groundwater is called an aquifer.
34 The Biosphere The biosphere is the part of Earth where life exists, 11 km into the ocean9 km into the atmosphere.The materials that organisms require must be continually recycled.Biosphere: only area with Suitable conditions for life due to abundant sunlight.
35 The Biosphere Plants need sunlight to produce food almost every other organism gets its food from plants and algae.Most of the algae float at the surface, known as phytoplankton.
36 Energy Flow in the Biosphere When an organism dies, its body is broken down and the nutrients become available for use by other organisms.This flow of energy allows life on Earth to continue to exist.
37 Energy Flow in the Biosphere Closed systems are systems that cannot exchange matter or energy with its surroundings.Open systems are systems that can exchange both matter and energy with its surroundings.Earth is a closed system with respect to matterEarth is a open system for energyenergy travelSunPlantanimal