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 Name the three major processes in the water cycle.  Describe the properties of ocean water.  Describe the two types of ocean currents.  Explain how.

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Presentation on theme: " Name the three major processes in the water cycle.  Describe the properties of ocean water.  Describe the two types of ocean currents.  Explain how."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Name the three major processes in the water cycle.  Describe the properties of ocean water.  Describe the two types of ocean currents.  Explain how the ocean regulates Earth’s temperature.  Discuss the factors that confine life to the biosphere.  Explain the difference between open and closed systems.

3  The hydrosphere includes all of the water on or near the Earth’s surface.  This includes ◦ water in the oceans ◦ lakes ◦ rivers ◦ wetlands ◦ polar ice caps ◦ soil ◦ rock layers beneath the Earth ◦ clouds

4  The water cycle: is the ◦ continuous movement of water  from the ocean to atmosphere to land back to ocean.  Evaporation: change of a substance from liquid to gas.  Water continually evaporates from the Earth’s oceans, lakes, streams, and soil, but the majority evaporates from the oceans.

5  Condensation is the change of state from a gas to a liquid. ◦ Water vapor forms water droplets ◦ Droplets form clouds ◦ Clouds create heavier drops that fall as Precipitation  Precipitation is any form of water that falls to the Earth from the clouds including ◦ Rain ◦ Snow ◦ Sleet ◦ Hail

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7  All of the oceans are joined together called: ◦ world ocean.  Oceans regulate the planet’s environment.

8  The largest ocean is the Pacific Ocean ◦ surface area of about 165,640,000 km 2. ◦ The deepest point is Challenger Deep.  It is 11,033m (6.85miles) below sea level ◦ deeper than Mount Everest is tall.

9  Largest Ocean: Pacific Ocean ◦ divided into two parts  North Pacific and South Pacific ◦ based on the direction of the surface currents.  North Pacific: currents move clockwise  South Pacific: currents move counter- clockwise

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11  2 nd largest ocean: Atlantic Ocean ◦ about 1/2 the size of Pacific Ocean ◦ Covers 81,630,000 km 2.  Can be divided into a north and south based on the directions of surface currents.

12  3 rd largest ocean: The Indian Ocean ◦ covers73,420,000 km 2.  The smallest ocean: Artic ocean ◦ covers 14,350,000 km 2. ◦ much of its surface is covered by floating ice Summer in the Arctic

13  What makes ocean and fresh water different? ◦ SALT  Salinity is a measure of the amount of dissolved salts in water. ◦ lower in places:  that get a lot of rain  where fresh water flows in to the sea. ◦ higher where water evaporates rapidly leaving salts behind.

14  Most of the salt in the ocean is sodium chloride (NaCl a.k.a. table salt)  although many other elements can be found in the ocean as well.

15  Surface: warmed by the sun  stirred up by waves and currents so the ◦ warm surface zone may be 350 m deep.  Thermocline: Below the surface zone ◦ about 300 to 700 m ◦ temperature falls rapidly.  depths of the ocean ◦ no sunlight = very cold, just above freezing.

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18  Epipelagic Zone  Mesopelagic Zone  Bathypelagic Zone  Abyssopelagic Zone  Hadalpelagic Zone  Benthic Zone

19  Epipelagic Zone:  Surface – 650 ft ◦ Upper ocean zone.  Full of life ◦ enough sunlight to sustain photosynthesis.  (a.k.a.) Euphotic Zone.

20  Mesopelagic Zone:  650 ft – 3300ft ◦ not enough sunlight to sustain photosynthesis.  (a.k.a.) Disphotic Zone.

21  Bathypelagic Zone:  3300 ft ft  lowest level on the continental shelf.  No sunlight.  Aphotic Zone: No Sunlight  Plants cannot grow.  No primary productivity.  All the food in this zone comes from dead material sinking from the higher layers.

22  Abyssopelagic Zone:  13000ft- ~20000ft ◦ Largest layer of the ocean. ◦ It is completely dark, and the ◦ Low oxygen concentration  Extreme pressure.  No sunlight.  Aphotic Zone: No Sunlight  Plants cannot grow.  No primary productivity.  Does Support life. ◦ Organisms feed off of dead and fecal materials that sink to the sea floor.

23  Hadalpelagic Zone:  20000ft and Lower  Deep ocean trenches such as the Mariana Trench and others.  Shares same characteristics as the Abyssal Zone except even deeper.  No sunlight.  Aphotic Zone: No Sunlight  Plants cannot grow.

24  Benthic Zone:  This is the ocean floor. ◦ Mudlike sediments form bodies of dead organisms ◦ Fecal pellets of aquatic organisms also accumulate here.  Sediment of dead organisms and fecal matter can be a mile thick.  Aphotic Zone: No Sunlight  Extreme pressure

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26  Important functions: ◦ Absorb and store energy from sunlight ◦ This regulates temperatures in Earth’s atmosphere.  Because the ocean both absorbs and releases heat slower than land, the temperature of the atmosphere changes more slowly.  If oceans did not regulate temperatures, temperatures would be too extreme for life to exist on Earth.

27  Local temperatures are regulated by the world ocean.  Currents circulate warm water causing land areas they flow past to have more moderate climates.  For example, the British Isles are warmed by the waters of the Gulf Stream.

28  surface currents: Streamlike movements of water that occur at or near the surface. ◦ wind driven and result from global wind patterns.  Surface currents: ◦ can be warm or cold ◦ They do not readily mix with one another.

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30  Deep currents ◦ movements of water that flow very slowly along the ocean floor.  Deep currents form when the cold, dense water from the poles sinks below warmer, less dense ocean water and flows toward the equator. ◦ The densest and coldest ocean water is located off the coast of Antarctica producing a deep current called the Antarctic Bottom Water.

31  Fresh water: ◦ Most fresh water is locked up in icecaps and glaciers ◦ The rest is found in  lakes  rivers  wetlands  soil and  atmosphere  A river system: ◦ network of streams that drains an area of land ◦ including the main river, smaller streams or rivers that flow into larger ones.

32  Precipitation sinks into the ground and run off the land.  Most of this water trickles down through the ground and collects as groundwater.  Groundwater fulfills the need for fresh drinking water, and supplies agricultural and industrial need.  Makes up 1% of all the water on Earth,

33  A rock layer that stores and allows the flow of groundwater is called an aquifer.

34  The biosphere is the part of Earth where life exists, ◦ 11 km into the ocean ◦ 9 km into the atmosphere.  The materials that organisms require must be continually recycled.  Biosphere: only area with Suitable conditions for life due to abundant sunlight.

35  Plants need sunlight to produce food ◦ almost every other organism gets its food from plants and algae.  Most of the algae float at the surface, known as phytoplankton.

36  When an organism dies, its body is broken down and the nutrients become available for use by other organisms.  This flow of energy allows life on Earth to continue to exist.

37  Closed systems are systems that cannot exchange matter or energy with its surroundings.  Open systems are systems that can exchange both matter and energy with its surroundings.  Earth is a closed system with respect to matter  Earth is a open system for energy  energy travel ◦ Sun ◦ Plant ◦ animal


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