2What is Crew Resource Management Crew Resource Management (CRM) is an effective us of “all” resources to minimize errors and improve safety and performance.1 Fatality10 lost time injuries1000 No Loss Accidents10,000 UNSAFE ACTS!1000 No Loss Accidents10,000 UNSAFE ACTS!
3Crew Resource Management Crew Resource Management evolved from what was initially, “Cockpit Resource Management”.
4Crew Resource Management A landmark event was United Airlines flight 173, which occurred in Flight 173 crashed in a wooded area outside of Portland. The problem which occurred involved an indicator light for the landing gear. It indicated that the landing gear was not completely down. The pilot was informed of a low fuel by his crew after he decided to fly around trying to figure out the light. He either disregarded them or misunderstood them and crashed killing 8 passengers and two crew members. Twenty three other people were seriously injured.Why were so few killed?
5Lack of Crew Resource Management July 1, 1988, Hackensack, N.J., - Catastrophic collapse of bowstring trusses. The I.C. was scene with portable over shoulder participating in firefighting. Three (3) firefighters killed in initial collapse, two entombed that ran out of air. After 27 calls for help radio goes silent.October 27, 1997, Washington D.C., - Fire in a corner grocery store. Crews initiated an aggressive interior attack. Crews evacuated after rapid heat build up and floor shift. Engine 14 exits crew can’t find officer. Crew reports their officer missing on two separate occasions to other officers. Dead officer of Engine14 found in basement.
6Crew Resource Management From 1997 to 2001 –500 firefighters died in structure fires and fire fighting operations.Worcester, Mass.Keokuk, IowaLouisville, Ky.New York City
7Crew Resource Management Factors that contributed to these and other fire service tragedies are remarkably similar to factors identified by an industry that began adopting CRM as a mantra more than 25 years ago.The nation’s aviation industry recognized that human error was the prevailing cause in aviation disasters.The lessons learned by this industry are worth study by the fire service because of common contributing factors to the deaths in both industries.
8Crew Resource Management CRM exists when all members of the team actively seek to prevent adverse effects on the current situations.
9Does the Fire Service Promote a Risk Culture? Managing risk is our business, we do a great job taking care of Mr. & Mrs. Smith’s risk, but how about our own?Human behavior patterns suggest that the well intentioned, best trained, consistently performing individuals and groups commit errors. (Titanic)Accidents are not random occurrences – People cause accidents and make errors.CRM has a proven history in reduction of errors.Aviations, Military, and Medical.
10Crew Resource Management Adrenaline and testosterone contribute to more injuries than structural failure. A key factor in firefighter injury or death is the risk a firefighter will take and their supervisor’s ability to control it.
11How Does It Work? Six Principles Communication Decision-Making Task AllocationTeamworkS/ADebrief*
12Communication Barriers and bias block effective communication Standard language benefits allPractice “active” listeningDivide duties to prevent overloadMinimize distractionsEstablish Inquiry/Advocacy patternsClear, ConciseRespectfulBishop’s Assertive Statement
14Decision Making Axioms Recognize problems Fight the fire Treat the patientMaintain SAAccept inputMake a decision
15Task Allocations Know your limits Know your crew’s limits Capitalize on strengthsSeek out “experts”“Eat the elephant one bite at a time”
16Teamwork Leadership Followership www.firefighternearmiss.com Photo by Bob Bartosz, Camden Fire Department
17Situational Awareness Point where reality and perception collideReality always winsBeware of loss factorsAmbiguityDistractionFixationOverloadComplacencyUnresolved discrepancy
18Debrief Pre-Brief Topic Decorum Facilitate Analyze Operations Human Behaviors
19For More Information(downloadable manual)Okray and Lubnau, Crew Resource Management for the Fire Service. Penwell Publishing
20Crew Resource Management The National Fire Fighter Near-Miss Reporting System4025 Fair Ridge DriveFairfax, Virginia 22033Tel:Fax:
21Crew Resource Management The project is administered by the International Association of Fire Chiefs (IAFC) in consultation with the National Fire Fighter Near-Miss Reporting System Task Force. The project is endorsed by IAFC, International Association of Fire Fighters and the Volunteer & Combination Officers Section of the IAFC.