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Learn how Crew Resource Management (CRM) and Near-Miss Reporting are related Discuss the principles of Crew Resource Management (CRM) Learn how CRM assists.

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Presentation on theme: "Learn how Crew Resource Management (CRM) and Near-Miss Reporting are related Discuss the principles of Crew Resource Management (CRM) Learn how CRM assists."— Presentation transcript:


2 Learn how Crew Resource Management (CRM) and Near-Miss Reporting are related Discuss the principles of Crew Resource Management (CRM) Learn how CRM assists in the prevention of firefighter/EMT injuries and fatalities Learn how to use CRM as a tool to assist you in being a more effective firefighter/EMT or officer.

3 What are the ties between the two? Can you do one without the other? Which one is more effective? Who else is using this stuff?

4 Near Miss Reporting Intervenes at the "Unsafe Acts Greater ratio of opportunity for intervention All members participating CRM Targets Unsafe Acts area Most eyes/ears working All member commitment 1 Fatality 10 Lost Time Injuries 100 Minor Injuries 1000 No Loss Accidents 10,000 UNSAFE ACTS!

5 CRM is a tool created to optimize human performance by reducing the effect of human error through the use of all resources. CRM is when all team members actively seek to prevent adverse effects on the current situations.

6 CRM is NOT an attempt to undermine the ranking fire officers authority. All team members direct information flow to the officer BUT the officer-in-charge has the final decision on the course of action. CRM is NOT management by committee.

7 More effective teamwork Newly acquired communication and problem solving skills An operating philosophy that promotes team member input while preserving the officers authority Proactive accident prevention Respect of team members

8 1. Communication 2. Task Allocation 3. Teamwork 4. Critical Decision Making 5. Situational Awareness

9 Communication is the key to success in any endeavor. Communication breakdowns are routinely listed as a contributing factor to firefighter fatalities. Errors that occur throughout the communication process contribute to injury and death.

10 Formulate idea Select medium Transmit Receive Interpret Feedback of Understanding

11 The Sender and Receiver can make mistakes that interrupt the communication chain (remember, to err is human). A response of What do you mean is a good indicator that the receiver has missed the senders message. Receiving a message is a conscious process and you need to listen with an open mind.

12 Barriers & Roadblocks Hazardous Attitudes Fatigue Inattention Standard Language 500 most common words have 14,000 meanings. Say what you mean and mean what you say, but know that what you mean to say may not be taken as what you meant to say.

13 Communication boils down to respectfully communicating what you mean in clear text and confirm what is being conveyed to you. Errors are reduced through clear, concise communication, injuries are avoided and performance is enhanced.

14 Inquiry Inquiry – speak up when a discrepancy exists. Advocacy Advocacy – involves crafting an assertive statement using the persons name, problem statement, solution and request for agreement. Listen Listen – active listening overcomes the majority of communication issues. Resolve the Conflict Resolve the Conflict – Stay focused on the issue at hand. Provide Feedback Provide Feedback – this will confirm understanding.

15 Report # 9-892 Our engine company was responding to a car crash. We approached an intersection and had the red light…The driver and I both looked left to oncoming traffic and we started to make the right turn... A small car was traveling at 50+ mph in the second lane. Our line of sight was blocked by the cars and trucks in the first lane. The firefighter riding behind the driver saw the car at the last minute and yelled, Stop! Stop! Stop! The driver hit the brakes and missed the car by inches.

16 Do you have the confidence to communicate to your officer if you see an accident waiting to happen? As an officer, are you approachable, to where your crew can openly communicate with you? Do you have debriefings after incidents so you and your crew may communicate about the actions on that call? What went right? What went wrong? How will you fix it next time?

17 Two Components of Teamwork: Leadership Followership

18 Authority Mentoring Conflict Resolution Mission Analysis

19 Self Assessment Physical Condition Mental Condition Attitude Understand Human Behavior

20 Respect authority Personal Safety Crew Safety Accepts authority Knows authority limits Leader success Good communication skills Learning attitude Ego in check Balance assertiveness/authority Accept orders Demand clear tasks Admit errors Provide feedback Adapt

21 Report #6-309 I became more uncomfortable with our situation as we were fighting a losing battle. I communicated my thoughts to my usual partner and he was just doing the same thing to the others inside, having arrived at the same conclusion. As we were relaying the plan to get out, which all of us agreed to, and were making sure we would leave no one behind, the evacuation air horns sounded…

22 Does your crew work well together now? If not, how can you, as a firefighter, EMT, or officer, bring your crew together? You dont have to be in charge to show good leadership! Are you doing drills with your crew so they become more familiar with one another, so as to build a foundation of teamwork? Do you have members of your team that struggle with authority and dont practice good followership? How can you eliminate that before it becomes a safety risk?

23 Know your limits. Know your crews limits. Capitalize on strengths.

24 Proper use of automation Control distractions Follow SOPs Delegate ICS Use CRM

25 Report 10-901 The interior crew made entrance into the Alpha/Delta side of the structure through a narrow hallway and found active fire in a small bedroom…a flashover occurred causing confusion and disorientation within the room…Ventilation efforts were coordinated on the Alpha/Delta windows. The interior crews heard glass breaking and made their way to the window for emergency egress with the assistance of exterior crews.

26 Does your department have SOPs? Does your whole crew KNOW the SOPs? Are the SOPs followed on every call? Does your crew train for every role they may play on an incident? From Rapid Intervention, to structural firefighting, to basic EMS skills? Is your department ready to handle a Rapid Intervention in case of a Mayday? If your RIT team is activated, who is their RIT team?

27 Making decisions in the fire service can generally be divided into two categories…Non-Life Threatening or Life Threatening. Non-Life Threatening: Decision maker has time to evaluate options and choose best decision Life Threatening: Decisions maker is not afforded the opportunity to reflect…make a decision NOW!!!

28 Fireground officers often select the first decision that comes to mind, virtually eliminating any analysis. Fireground officers default to previous experiences during emergency incidents. This is known as pattern matching (slide trays).

29 Traditional Decision Making Identify problem Assess hazard Assess resources Solicit solutions Select best option Monitor results Fire Service Decision Making Decision Making Recognition Primed Decision Making Cue Based Decision Making

30 Rapid, intuitive process Looks for critical causes Relates to previous experiences Recalls previous conclusions & best actions taken Issues direction Experience

31 Individual is prompted to act based on cues from event. Cues are sensory elements (sights, sounds, smells) that recall previous actions under similar circumstances.

32 Experience Training Communication Preplanning

33 D Determine the problem. E Evaluate the scope of the problem. C Consider available options for mitigation. I Identify the most appropriate actions. D Do the most appropriate actions. E Evaluate the effectiveness of actions.

34 Report 08-614 The choice was made to pull the flammable gas out of the sewer by pulling a vacuum using a smoke ejector… A gas powered ejector was definitely not a choice because of operating limitations of the fan, as well as the potential for sparks. This left us with electric ejectors… The fan was started off to the side out of the LEL, placed over the manhole with the surroundings wrapped with a salvage cover. Our rational thought was when an electrical fan is started, thats when the spark is created and once running the chance of a spark is diminished.

35 Would you have considered using a different type of ventilation for the incident in Report 08- 614? Do you have contact information for your local Public Works Department and utility companies for incidents such as this? Do you have preplans of target or high hazard areas of your first due, and surrounding areas? What are the three closest target or high hazard areas to your response area?

36 The internal process that goes on constantly, much like size-up. Like a size-up, situational awareness must be updated constantly. Situational Awareness is dynamic and firefighters must maintain the absolute highest state of alertness and attention at all times.

37 Fight the fire! Assess problems in the time available. Gather info from all sources. Choose the best option. Monitor results – alter as necessary. Beware of SA loss factors!

38 Ambiguity Distraction Fixation Overload Complacency Improper Procedure Unresolved Discrepancy Nobody Fighting the Fire

39 Good crew coordination Proper task completion Understanding Smooth ride Crisp and appropriate radio calls Use of checklists

40 What do we have here? What is going on here? How are we doing? Does this look right?

41 What do I know that everyone needs to know? What does my crew know that I need to know? What do we all need to know?

42 Report 08-79 As firefighting had been taking place for almost an hour by this time at the carpet warehouse, we thought we would be on standby until overhaul, but after a few short minutes, we were told via radio to report to Operations for an assignment… I advanced the line approximately 10 – 12 feet inside the structure, which had heavy smoke with zero visibility… After an unknown but short period of time, our 4-man crew felt a rush of heat and was knocked backwards while being consumed by smoke as the entire roof (60x 70) over the carpet warehouse collapsed.

43 Does your department require a 360° walk- around before interior operations begin? Does your department have a different policy for firefighting operations in a single family home versus a commercial warehouse? How do your roles and responsibilities vary based on the type of occupancy? Does your department have a policy on interior firefighting after announcing exterior operations?

44 Download the CRM manual located on the Resources Page of

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