Presentation on theme: "Crew Resource Management & The Command Officer"— Presentation transcript:
1Crew Resource Management & The Command Officer Proven Tool for a Safer Scene ControlCrew Resource Management & The Command OfficerBob Bartosz PhotoPartnering for Safe LeadershipRuidoso, NMMay 7, 2008Battalion Chief John TippettMontgomery County Fire & Rescue Service (MD)
2What do we hope to accomplish today? Interactive discussion.Preserve “good” traditions.Acquaint you with “new”approach to command &control.Provide tool you canuse beginning today.Safety Based CultureNon-Punitive Approach to Error
4Acceptable Losses? 105 fatalities to date* 2006 Statistics 106 firefighters died while on duty in volunteer, 29 career.6 multiple fatality incidents, 17 killed.22 killed during brush, grass, or wildland firefighting.36 died at the scene of a fire.15 died responding to or returning from emergency incidents.9 died engaged in training activities.20 died after the conclusion of their on-duty activity.50 died from heart attacks.19 killed as a result of vehicle crashes.
5Reasons & CostsBetter protection, aggressive tactics, lighter weight construction and improved handling capabilities of heavy apparatus are putting firefighters at greater risk.Non-fatal firefighter injuries and prevention efforts cost anywhere from $2.8 billion to $7.8 billion per year. (NIST Report on Consequences of Fire Fighter Injuries )
9…To err is human… Error Management Marcus Tullius Cicero 106-43 B.C. 1 Fatality10Lost Time Injuries100Minor Injuries1000 No Loss Accidents10,000 UNSAFE ACTS!
10Human Factor Error Causes Gordon Dupont’s “Dirty Dozen” Lack of CommunicationComplacencyLack of KnowledgeDistractionLack of TeamworkFatigueLack of ResourcesPressureLack of AssertivenessStressLack of AwarenessNorms
12When Things Go Wrong . . . How It Is Now . . . How It Should Be . . . You are highly trainedYou are humanandandHumans make mistakesIf you did as trained, you would not make mistakessosoLet’s also explore why the system allowed, or failed to accommodate your mistakeYou weren’t careful enoughsoandYou should be PUNISHED!Let’s IMPROVE THE SYSTEM!
13Layers of Defense Trap Crew Errors Use All ResourcesMaintain Situational AwarenessFollow SOPsHigh Level of Proficiency
14You may not know where the holes are Use All ResourcesFollow SOP’sMaintain SituationalAwarenessHigh Level of ProficiencyJames Reason’s “Swiss Cheese”
15When the holes line up… DISASTER! Use All Resources Follow SOP’s Maintain SituationalAwarenessDISASTER!High Level of ProficiencyJames Reason’s “Swiss Cheese”
16Crew Resource Management What it isWhere it came fromHow it worksWhy we should use itHow we know it works
17What Is Crew Resource Management? Force multiplierUses all resourcesEnhances supervisionImproves safetyRaises level ofawareness forthose engaged
18Crew Resource Management (CRM) is a tool created to optimize human performance by reducing the effect of human error through the use of all resources.
19Where Did It Come From? Aviation Community Air Crashes Dominated Industry AttentionTechnology Only Went So Far1970’s –Dr. Robert Helmreich and CVRs
20Helmreich’s Error Management Model AVOIDTRAPMITIGATE
21How Does It Work? Six Principles Communication Decision-Making Task AllocationTeamworkSituationalAwarenessDebrief*
23Communication Barriers and bias block effective communication Standard language benefits allPractice “active” listeningDivide duties to prevent overloadMinimize distractionsEstablish Inquiry/Advocacy patternsClear, Concise, CompleteRespectfulBishop’s Assertive Statement
24Communication Active Listening Face individual(s) Maintain eye contact Only one person speaks at a timeFormulate reply after other person speaking finishes talkingDistractionsTurn down radio(s)Phones on vibrateNo multi-tasking during periods of high stressAmbient noiseAdjourn to quiet location
25“Sterile” Command Post Everyone needs to be “all business” when it’s time for business.IC sets the tone for the CP.Photo by Carlos Alfaro
26Todd Bishop’s Assertive Statement How to talk “up”the chain of commandIf you are a subordinate:– use the techniqueIf you are a supervisor:– LISTEN FOR THE PROCESS!
275 Easy Steps Opening/attention (Call the supervisor by name or rank) State concern/owned emotion (I’m concerned about…)State the problem as you see it (Someone is going to get hurt if we…)State a solution (I think we can do it another way…)Obtain agreement (aka buy-in) (Does this make sense to you?)
28Critical Decision Making Recognize problemsContinue to “fight the fire”Maintain SAAssess hazardsAssess resourcesSolicit solutionsMake a decision!
29KleinMethodRecognition PrimedNaturalisticCue Based
30Decision Making Cue Based Compare existing knowledge base against situationImprove base throughTrainingExperienceKnowledgeCase studies
31“blink” Rapid Cognition Thin-slicing Ability of the unconscious to find patterns in situations and behaviors based on very narrow slices of experience.Automated, accelerated recognition of identifiable patterns.“Coup d’oeil” - the power of the glance- Malcolm Gladwell
33Task Allocation Know your limits Know your crew’s limits Capitalize on strengthsSeek out “experts”“Eat the elephant one bite at a time”
34Task Allocation Exercise What You Have3 Story MFDFire on 2 floors and through roofType V ConstructionWood Truss Roof
35Who’s On the Way… BC1 28 years, 6 as Ops BC 14 years in busiest areas EFO GradBachelor’s in Fire ProtectionEMS BC16 years, 2 as EMS BC12 years in Suppression ranks2 years as Training CaptainAssociates’ Degree, EMSFire Prevention AC20 years6 in Ops as FF, Remainder of time in Fire PreventionEFO GradBachelor’s in Fire ProtectionNIMS InstructorOperations AC34 years, 2 as Ops Chief12 as Training DC4 as Arson BC8 as Safety CaptainBachelor’s in Fire Service Management
36Who Gets the Job? Fire Attack Safety Officer Senior Advisor Roof Sector
37Teamwork Leadership Followership Photo by Bob Bartosz, Camden Fire Department
38Teamwork Leadership Authority Mentoring Mandated by rank Derived through respectMentoringLead by exampleAdmit mistakesBe technically competentShare knowledge
39Teamwork #1 Priority: Continuous Risk vs Reward Evaluation Conflict ResolutionFocus on issueKeep ego in checkListenMission Analysis#1 Priority:ContinuousRisk vs RewardEvaluation
40Understands human behaviors TeamworkFOLLOWERSHIPSelf AssessmentPhysical ConditionMental ConditionAttitudeUnderstands human behaviors
41Teamwork Followership Respect authority Personal Safety Crew Safety Accepts authorityKnows authority limitsLeader successGood communication skillsLearning attitudeEgo in checkBalance assertiveness/authorityAccept ordersDemand clear tasksAdmit errorsProvide feedbackAdapt
43Situational Awareness Point where perception and reality collideReality always winsBeware of loss factorsAmbiguityDistractionFixationOverloadComplacencyUnresolved discrepancy
44Hazardous Attitudes Invulnerability Anti-authority Impulsivity Macho Resignation“Air Show Syndrome”“Pressing”Refers to an individual’s frame of mind. First 5 are FAA.
45Good Situational Awareness Good crew coordinationProper task completionUnderstandingSmooth rideCrisp and appropriate radio callsUse of checklists
46Preventing Loss of Situational Awareness Crew mental joggers“What do we have here?”“What’s going on here?”“How are we doing?”“Does this look right?”
47Preventing loss of Situational Awareness Personal mental joggers“What do I know that they need to know?”“What do they know that I need to know?”“What do we all need to know?”
48Debrief Pre-Brief Facilitate Analyze Topic Decorum Operations Human Behaviors
49Why Should We Use CRM? Error is a fact of all performance Command becoming more complicatedCommand successes are a function of teamworkProven success in multiple industries with similar structure
50How Do We Know It Works? 5th Generation in Aviation Industry U. S. Marine Corps Adopting as Basic PhilosophySignificant Reductions in Injuries and ErrorCommercial Aviation IndustryU.S. Coast GuardU.S. NavyU.S. Air ForceVeterans’ Administration Hospital System
51Review What CRM is Where it came from How it works Why we should use itHow we know it works
52For More Information(downloadable manual)Okray and Lubnau, Crew Resource Management for the Fire Service. Penwell Publishing