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Crew Resource Management & The Command Officer Partnering for Safe Leadership Ruidoso, NM May 7, 2008 Battalion Chief John Tippett Montgomery County Fire.

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Presentation on theme: "Crew Resource Management & The Command Officer Partnering for Safe Leadership Ruidoso, NM May 7, 2008 Battalion Chief John Tippett Montgomery County Fire."— Presentation transcript:

1 Crew Resource Management & The Command Officer Partnering for Safe Leadership Ruidoso, NM May 7, 2008 Battalion Chief John Tippett Montgomery County Fire & Rescue Service (MD) Montgomery County Fire & Rescue Service (MD) Proven Tool for a Safer Scene Control Bob Bartosz Photo

2 What do we hope to accomplish today? Interactive discussion. Interactive discussion. Preserve good traditions. Preserve good traditions. Acquaint you with new Acquaint you with new approach to command & approach to command & control. control. Provide tool you can Provide tool you can use beginning today. use beginning today. Safety Based Culture Non-Punitive Approach to Error

3 Is there a problem with the way we do business?

4 Acceptable Losses? 105 fatalities to date* 105 fatalities to date* 2006 Statistics 106 firefighters died while on duty in volunteer, 29 career. 106 firefighters died while on duty in volunteer, 29 career. 6 multiple fatality incidents, 17 killed. 6 multiple fatality incidents, 17 killed. 22 killed during brush, grass, or wildland firefighting. 22 killed during brush, grass, or wildland firefighting. 36 died at the scene of a fire. 36 died at the scene of a fire. 15 died responding to or returning from emergency incidents. 15 died responding to or returning from emergency incidents. 9 died engaged in training activities. 9 died engaged in training activities. 20 died after the conclusion of their on-duty activity. 20 died after the conclusion of their on-duty activity. 50 died from heart attacks. 50 died from heart attacks. 19 killed as a result of vehicle crashes. 19 killed as a result of vehicle crashes.

5 Better protection, aggressive tactics, lighter weight construction and improved handling capabilities of heavy apparatus are putting firefighters at greater risk. Better protection, aggressive tactics, lighter weight construction and improved handling capabilities of heavy apparatus are putting firefighters at greater risk. Non-fatal firefighter injuries and prevention efforts cost anywhere from $2.8 billion to $7.8 billion per year. (NIST Report on Consequences of Fire Fighter Injuries ) Non-fatal firefighter injuries and prevention efforts cost anywhere from $2.8 billion to $7.8 billion per year. (NIST Report on Consequences of Fire Fighter Injuries ) Reasons & Costs

6 Why isnt technology enough?

7 Normalization of Deviance…

8 …becomes our nemesis

9 Error Management …To err is human… Marcus Tullius Cicero B.C. 1 Fatality 10 Lost Time Injuries 100 Minor Injuries 1000 No Loss Accidents 10,000 UNSAFE ACTS!

10 Human Factor Error Causes Gordon Duponts Dirty Dozen Lack of Communication Lack of Communication Complacency Complacency Lack of Knowledge Lack of Knowledge Distraction Distraction Lack of Teamwork Lack of Teamwork Fatigue Fatigue Lack of Resources Pressure Lack of Assertiveness Stress Lack of Awareness Norms

11 Who Carries the Load?

12 When Things Go Wrong... How It Is Now...How It Should Be... You are humanYou are highly trained and If you did as trained, you would not make mistakes Humans make mistakes so You werent careful enough Lets also explore why the system allowed, or failed to accommodate your mistake so You should be PUNISHED!Lets IMPROVE THE SYSTEM! and so and

13 Layers of Defense Trap Crew Errors Use All Resources Maintain Situational Awareness Follow SOPs High Level of Proficiency

14 You may not know where the holes are High Level of Proficiency Maintain Situational Awareness Follow SOPs Use All Resources James Reasons Swiss Cheese

15 When the holes line up… High Level of Proficiency Maintain Situational Awareness Follow SOPs Use All Resources James Reasons Swiss Cheese DISASTER!

16 What it is What it is Where it came from Where it came from How it works How it works Why we should use it Why we should use it How we know it works How we know it works Crew Resource Management

17 What Is Crew Resource Management? Force multiplier Force multiplier Uses all resources Uses all resources Enhances supervision Enhances supervision Improves safety Improves safety Raises level of Raises level of awareness for awareness for those engaged those engaged

18 Crew Resource Management (CRM) is a tool created to optimize human performance by reducing the effect of human error through the use of all resources.

19 Where Did It Come From? Aviation Community Aviation Community Air Crashes Dominated Industry Attention Air Crashes Dominated Industry Attention Technology Only Went So Far Technology Only Went So Far 1970s –Dr. Robert Helmreich and CVRs 1970s –Dr. Robert Helmreich and CVRs

20 Error Management Helmreichs Error Management Model AVOID TRAP MITIGATE

21 How Does It Work? Six Principles Communication Communication Decision-Making Decision-Making Task Allocation Task Allocation Teamwork Teamwork Situational Situational Awareness Awareness Debrief* Debrief*

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23 Communication Barriers and bias block effective communication Barriers and bias block effective communication Standard language benefits all Standard language benefits all Practice active listening Practice active listening Divide duties to prevent overload Divide duties to prevent overload Minimize distractions Minimize distractions Establish Inquiry/Advocacy patterns Establish Inquiry/Advocacy patterns Clear, Concise, Complete Clear, Concise, Complete Respectful Respectful Bishops Assertive Statement Bishops Assertive Statement

24 Communication Active Listening Face individual(s) Face individual(s) Maintain eye contact Maintain eye contact Only one person speaks at a time Only one person speaks at a time Formulate reply after other person speaking finishes talking Formulate reply after other person speaking finishes talking Distractions Turn down radio(s) Phones on vibrate No multi-tasking during periods of high stress Ambient noise Adjourn to quiet location

25 Sterile Command Post Everyone needs to be all business when its time for business. Everyone needs to be all business when its time for business. IC sets the tone for the CP. IC sets the tone for the CP. Photo by Carlos Alfaro

26 Todd Bishops Assertive Statement How to talk up the chain of command the chain of command If you are a subordinate: If you are a subordinate: – use the technique – use the technique If you are a supervisor: If you are a supervisor: – LISTEN FOR THE PROCESS! – LISTEN FOR THE PROCESS!

27 5 Easy Steps Opening/attention (Call the supervisor by name or rank) Opening/attention (Call the supervisor by name or rank) State concern/owned emotion (Im concerned about…) State concern/owned emotion (Im concerned about…) State the problem as you see it (Someone is going to get hurt if we…) State the problem as you see it (Someone is going to get hurt if we…) State a solution (I think we can do it another way…) State a solution (I think we can do it another way…) Obtain agreement (aka buy-in) (Does this make sense to you?) Obtain agreement (aka buy-in) (Does this make sense to you?)

28 Recognize problems Recognize problems Continue to fight the fire Continue to fight the fire Maintain SA Maintain SA Assess hazards Assess hazards Assess resources Assess resources Solicit solutions Solicit solutions Make a decision! Make a decision! Critical Decision Making

29 Klein Method Recognition Primed Recognition Primed Naturalistic Naturalistic Cue Based Cue Based

30 Decision Making Cue Based Compare existing knowledge base against situation Compare existing knowledge base against situation Improve base through Improve base through Training Training Experience Experience Knowledge Knowledge Case studies Case studies

31 blink Rapid Cognition Thin-slicing Ability of the unconscious to find patterns in situations and behaviors based on very narrow slices of experience. Ability of the unconscious to find patterns in situations and behaviors based on very narrow slices of experience. Automated, accelerated recognition of identifiable patterns. Automated, accelerated recognition of identifiable patterns. Coup doeil - the power of the glance Coup doeil - the power of the glance - Malcolm Gladwell

32 Klein, Gladwell & Todays Fire Officer

33 Task Allocation Know your limits Know your limits Know your crews limits Know your crews limits Capitalize on strengths Capitalize on strengths Seek out experts Seek out experts Eat the elephant one bite at a time Eat the elephant one bite at a time

34 Task Allocation Exercise What You Have 3 Story MFD Fire on 2 floors and through roof Type V Construction Wood Truss Roof

35 Whos On the Way… BC1 28 years, 6 as Ops BC 14 years in busiest areas EFO Grad Bachelors in Fire Protection Fire Prevention AC 20 years 6 in Ops as FF, Remainder of time in Fire Prevention EFO Grad Bachelors in Fire Protection NIMS Instructor Operations AC 34 years, 2 as Ops Chief 12 as Training DC 4 as Arson BC 8 as Safety Captain Bachelors in Fire Service Management EMS BC 16 years, 2 as EMS BC 12 years in Suppression ranks 2 years as Training Captain Associates Degree, EMS

36 Who Gets the Job? Fire Attack Safety Officer Senior Advisor Roof Sector

37 Teamwork Leadership Leadership Followership Followership Photo by Bob Bartosz, Camden Fire Department

38 Teamwork Leadership Authority Authority Mandated by rank Mandated by rank Derived through respect Derived through respect Mentoring Mentoring Lead by example Lead by example Admit mistakes Admit mistakes Be technically competent Be technically competent Share knowledge Share knowledge

39 Teamwork Conflict Resolution Conflict Resolution Focus on issue Focus on issue Keep ego in check Keep ego in check Listen Listen Mission Analysis #1 Priority: Continuous Risk vs Reward Evaluation

40 Teamwork FOLLOWERSHIP Self Assessment Physical Condition Physical Condition Mental Condition Mental Condition Attitude Attitude Understands human behaviors Understands human behaviors

41 Teamwork Respect authority Respect authority Personal Safety Personal Safety Crew Safety Crew Safety Accepts authority Accepts authority Knows authority limits Knows authority limits Leader success Leader success Good communication skills Good communication skills Learning attitude Learning attitude Ego in check Ego in check Balance assertiveness/authority Balance assertiveness/authority Accept orders Accept orders Demand clear tasks Demand clear tasks Admit errors Admit errors Provide feedback Provide feedback Adapt Adapt Followership

42 How Well Do You Team?

43 Situational Awareness Point where perception and reality collide Reality always wins Reality always wins Beware of loss factors Beware of loss factors Ambiguity Ambiguity Distraction Distraction Fixation Fixation Overload Overload Complacency Complacency Unresolved discrepancy Unresolved discrepancy

44 Hazardous Attitudes Invulnerability Invulnerability Anti-authority Anti-authority Impulsivity Impulsivity Macho Macho Resignation Resignation Air Show Syndrome Air Show Syndrome Pressing Pressing

45 Good Situational Awareness Good crew coordination Good crew coordination Proper task completion Proper task completion Understanding Understanding Smooth ride Smooth ride Crisp and appropriate radio calls Crisp and appropriate radio calls Use of checklists Use of checklists

46 Preventing Loss of Situational Awareness Crew mental joggers What do we have here? What do we have here? Whats going on here? Whats going on here? How are we doing? How are we doing? Does this look right? Does this look right?

47 Preventing loss of Situational Awareness Personal mental joggers Personal mental joggers What do I know that they need to know? What do I know that they need to know? What do they know that I need to know? What do they know that I need to know? What do we all need to know? What do we all need to know?

48 Debrief Pre-Brief Pre-Brief Topic Topic Decorum Decorum Facilitate Facilitate Analyze Analyze Operations Operations Human Behaviors Human Behaviors

49 Why Should We Use CRM? Error is a fact of all performance Error is a fact of all performance Command becoming more complicated Command becoming more complicated Command successes are a function of teamwork Command successes are a function of teamwork Proven success in multiple industries with similar structure Proven success in multiple industries with similar structure

50 How Do We Know It Works? 5 th Generation in Aviation Industry 5 th Generation in Aviation Industry U. S. Marine Corps Adopting as Basic Philosophy U. S. Marine Corps Adopting as Basic Philosophy Significant Reductions in Injuries and Error Significant Reductions in Injuries and Error Commercial Aviation Industry Commercial Aviation Industry U.S. Coast Guard U.S. Coast Guard U.S. Navy U.S. Navy U.S. Air Force U.S. Air Force Veterans Administration Hospital System Veterans Administration Hospital System

51 Review What CRM is What CRM is Where it came from Where it came from How it works How it works Why we should use it Why we should use it How we know it works How we know it works

52 For More Information ns/4685/files/CRM%20Manua l.pdf (downloadable manual) ns/4685/files/CRM%20Manua l.pdf (downloadable manual) Okray and Lubnau, Crew Resource Management for the Fire Service. Penwell Publishing Okray and Lubnau, Crew Resource Management for the Fire Service. Penwell Publishing

53 Contact Information

54 QUESTIONS?


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